RHS1 Connector – September 2008

RHS1 Connector – September 2008

In this issue…
  • Fun Fact…
  • FEATURE ARTICLE…3H “Star Trek Tri-corder” *NEW* technology…
  • Treasure…Odyssey Black Swan Update…
  • THOM’S COLUMN…Rockhound Recipes and Tips…
  • Earthwatch.. Yellowstone Volcano new info…
  • FEATURE ARTICLE… Meet the members…
  • RHS1 News.


Got Milk?

Milk from cows has been consumed by humans for 8,500 years, Archaeologists have revealed. Unglazed pottery from the Sea of Marmara region were analyzed revealing they held milk fat, and ancient animal bones revealed the dairy livestock was cattle. It is presumed that the milk might have been used for butter, yogurt, and cheese rather than for drinking.

Archaeologists have made no mention of finding any “Got Milk” inscriptions, however. I guess it took a modern marketing genius to think that one up






Last year I had a question and an Archaeologist I was communicating with put me in touch with Charles (Chuck) L.Christensen of H3Tec. He had some new technology that was absolutely astounding and I was privileged to get updates periodically on his progress in bringing this technology to the public. I actually had to promise Chuck I’d keep quiet about his invention until he was ready to release information about it himself.

That has been one hard promise to keep, let me assure you. It isn’t often that someone like me gets to be privy to information that can change the shape of the rockhound and treasure hunting world. I did slip far enough in a newsletter article a few months ago to tell you if you had never heard of Charles Christensen, you soon would. Soon has finally arrived.

Without further clamor and rattle – I am ecstatic to reveal to you a sneak preview of the TRI-CORDER and it’s inventor, Charles L. Christensen, President of H3 Tec, (and typical eccentric scientist type guy).

3H Tec Awards.

Utah-based H3 Tec has spent years and millions of dollars developing its new patent-pending technology, which can detect any element or compound at great distances. This year alone, the company has won Utah Best of State for Inventor, was a Finalist in the Stoel Rives – Utah Technology Council Utah Innovation Award in the Material Science – Chemistry category, was featured in Utah Business magazine as one of the top three Best and Brightest Minds in Utah, and was a finalist in Invented in Utah. These awards are very impressive for our little company as we were competing against well-funded universities and state-of-the-art research facilities.

President and CEO of H3 Tec, Charles Christensen, has been working on the H3 Detector for eight years, building on his extensive engagements with NASA, U.S. military, and factory automation over his 35-year career.

“The concept of the H3 Detector sprang from the fascination I had as a young boy watching Star Trek and seeing the fictional tricorder,” says Christensen. “Although I am in no way a Treky, I have always thought that someday, it would be possible to build a working tricorder. Over the years, I have had great opportunities to focus my mind on developing solutions to a lot of really difficult problems, but I never forgot the Star Trek tri-corder. Although I pushed it to the back of my mind, it wouldn’t leave me alone, and eight years ago I started my first designs for the H3 Detector. I am a firm believer that anything is possible, if you don’t know it isn’t!

“I started out building analog detectors that weighed approximately 200 pounds. The current version of the H3 Detector is the fourteenth iteration of the device, and it weighs less than 10 ounces. The next version of the H3 Detector will feature full mapping through GPS.”

Nano-Ionic-Resonance (NIR):
How does NIR work? In layman’s terms, the H3 Detector sends out a patented impulse. When the impulse reaches the atom(s) in the selected element or compound it excites them and they make noise, which reflects back to the H3 device’s listening circuit. The listening circuit closes, locking on to the element. To see the device in action (and see a visual model of how it works) watch the H3 demo video created as part of our advertising campaign by Rick Bennett and Dave Biesinger.

The flagship H3 Detector is a highly developed scientific instrument used in complex surveys of land areas and resources. The device has been independently tested and proven by laboratories including Chemir Analytical Services.  H3 Tec offers contracted studies for oil, natural gas, and other commercial elements, and works with several corporations on an ongoing basis.
“This fall, we are proud to move into a new area of development by introducing a line of more affordable H3 Detectors developed specifically for the smaller treasure and natural resources market: the H3 Treasure Detectors.”

Figure 1 – H3 Treasure Trekker

“W e are very excited to offer this system to anyone who is serious about finding treasure and resources. There are three offerings with this new technology: the H3 Treasure Tracker (50′ range); the H3 Treasure Trekker (150′ range); and finally, the H3 Treasure Tri-corder (500′ + range). Each successive model has twice the features and range as the next lower model.”

When you purchase one of the H3 Treasure Detector line of devices, you must also license the technology for each of the elements (gold, silver, uranium, and so on) you want to be able to detect. Software is then loaded onto your computer, and you can upload it into the H3 Treasure Detector model of your choice.

This technology is so versatile that having a library of elements will pay huge dividends. For example, suppose you are searching for gold but finding none in your current location. In seconds, you can upload the software that will allow you to detect silver or a valuable mineral, and search for that instead.

The H3 Treasure Detector devices are sensitive, scientific instruments, and require specialized knowledge to operate optimally. A basic technical training course is included with purchase. Additional, more intensive training packages are offered for an additional fee at H3’s corporate offices at the Davis Applied Technology College (DATC) in Ogden, Utah. The DATC is a state-of-the-art facility and a wonderful home for H3 Treasure Detector training.

Christensen states “I’m always amazed at what is or isn’t where everyone thinks it should be. There are times when I have gone out [searching] for gold and silver, but come up with oil. Right now, we are now drilling in locations I discovered last fall and winter. On the other hand, I was looking for oil and gas for one of the Indian Nation tribes and found gold – a lot of gold – silver, and platinum.

Four years ago, I was approached by a well-known author, archaeologist, and authority on the Spanish Trail. He had heard of my technology, but wanted to test it – and me. I went out with him and his team to do a blind study. Unbeknownst to me, they had researched every location we visited in advance, and knew what could be found there and where. I scanned for each element specified by the team, such as gold or brass, and then gave them my reports. After the first day in the field, the archaeologist and his team members became more and more impressed and excited as he saw with his own eyes that this technology works. The results of every scan we did was correct down to the smallest detail. Over the years, as we’ve worked together, the archaeological team and I have found some amazing artifacts and developed a great friendship. He has taught me much about this wonderful land we live in and the history it holds. In fact, National Geographic heard about our work together, and sent a well-known team to film a documentary that will be aired this fall on the National Geographic Channel. The high Uintah mountains in Utah were a spectacular backdrop for the adventure, riding horses up mountain trails to the old abandoned Spanish ore mines, and showing off H3 Tec’s technology. Make sure you get a chance to see this great program on finding gold!”

click here to Contact H3 by email or
by mail or phone at:
Davis Applied Technology College
450 South Simmons Way, Suite 650
Kaysville, UT, 84037

If you are serious about finding elements (treasure) and having a great adventure, H3 is for you!

To visit 3H Tec website click the button above

Odyssey Marine Exploration:

Odyssey Marine Exploration Welcomes Peru’s Filing In “Black Swan” Case

For the full story of the “Black Swan”, see the July 2007 issue of the Connector.
Tampa, FL – August 20, 2008 – Odyssey Marine Exploration, Inc. (NasdaqCM: OMEX), the world leader in the field of deep-ocean shipwreck exploration, announced today that the Republic of Peru filed a motion in federal court in one of the company’s pending admiralty cases. As anticipated after numerous statements in the media, Peru formally filed a Verified Conditional Claim in the “Black Swan” admiralty case, which was originally filed by Odyssey Marine Exploration. The case is currently pending before the U.S. District Court in Tampa, Florida.

“Odyssey’s position is to encourage every appropriate claimant to present its potential claims in a case like this, so we welcome Peru’s filing, even as the Company reserves its legal position. If the court does not find that the property was abandoned, we believe that the property in the “Black Swan” case would be handled under the traditional law of salvage,” said Greg Stemm, Odyssey Chief Executive Officer.

The nature of a salvage award is that the award to the salvor is not dependent upon the number of claimants. Claimants other than the salvor must either enter into an agreement amongst themselves to split the owner’s percentage of a find or submit their individual claims to the court for adjudication. For instance, in the case of the Central America, an award of 92% of the cargo was made to the salvor, and the remaining 8% was held in trust while various insurance companies were given the opportunity to present their respective claims.

“We believe that Peru’s filing raises a significant and timely question relating to whether a former colonial power or the colonized indigenous peoples should receive the cultural and financial benefit of underwater cultural heritage derived from the previously colonized nations. Odyssey would be pleased to involve Peru in the study and archaeological investigation of any property that is found to have originated in Peru, without regard for whether Peru has any legal rights to the property. We would also be pleased to extend the same courtesy to any other sovereign government, indigenous people, relatives or descendants who might have a legitimate claim or interest in property discovered on any of Odyssey’s shipwrecks,” Mr. Stemm added.

About Odyssey Marine Exploration

Odyssey Marine Exploration, Inc. (NasdaqCM: OMEX) is engaged in the exploration of deep-water shipwrecks and uses innovative methods and state-of-the-art technology to conduct extensive deep-ocean search and archaeological recovery operations around the world. Odyssey discovered the Civil War era shipwreck of the SS Republic in 2003 and recovered over 50,000 coins and 14,000 artifacts from the site nearly 1,700 feet deep. In May 2007, the Company announced the largest historic deep-ocean treasure recovery of over 500,000 silver and gold coins, weighing 17 tons, from a Colonial era site code-named “Black Swan.” Odyssey has several shipwreck projects in various stages of development around the world.

Odyssey offers various ways to share in the excitement of deep-ocean exploration by making shipwreck treasures and artifacts available to collectors, the general public and students through its webstore, exhibits, books, videos, merchandise, and educational programs. Odyssey’s “SHIPWRECK! Pirates & Treasure” exhibit is currently on display at the Museum of Science and Industry in Tampa, FL. For details on the Company’s activities and its commitment to the preservation of maritime heritage please visit www.shipwreck.net.

For additional information, please contact Natja Igney, Odyssey’s Manager of Corporate Communications, at 813-876-1776.

SS Republic is a registered trademark of Odyssey Marine Exploration, Inc

Odyssey Marine Exploration believes the information set forth in this Press Release may include “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Act of 1934. Certain factors that could cause results to differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements are set forth in “Risk Factors” in the Part I, Item 1A of the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2006, which has been filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Odyssey Marine Exploration P.O. Box 320057 Tampa, FL 33679-2057 www.shipwreck.net

RHS1 Members News

Summer is coming to a close soon and most rockhounds in the Northern Hemisphere are busy getting in all the hunting they can get in before winter knocks them back inside to their winter rockhound activities.

It would be terrific if those of you who are able to post pictures of your summer discoveries would do so.

If you haven’t noticed yet –  I have added a few new forums.
One is an announcement forum where I can get relevant news to you without having to guess where you’ll be most likely to find it.

The other is a forum for you to post your experiences with fee or free digs. I had never been to a fee dig before this year and was frankly very disappointed with one of them after spending a bit on gas to get there and another fee to get in the door and it made me think that we should have a place just to post about different digs we go to and whether we felt they were worth the trip and the money spent. Your input in this forum can be important help to those trying to decide where to spend time on their limited hunting schedules and budgets. Please contribute to that forum if you have relevant information! Your information contributions can make that forum a vital resource for our community.

Over the next few months you may see other forums appear  and some may disappear. If you have any ideas about forums you think would be useful and interesting additions, please let me know. It is your forum and your contributions can make it a leading resource for the hunting community.


Motorcycles, Florida, and Crabs.

Well I’m finally taking a long awaited vacation.

I’ll be riding my motorcycle from upstate New York to Florida very soon.
When I lived in Florida many years ago, the one thing I always enjoyed was catching and eating Blue Crabs. It is something I will defiantly be doing on this trip. IF not catching then I sure will be eating a bunch.

We always steamed them years ago and I can still remember it well.
After they where steamed we would cover the table with newspapers and set a bowl of melted butter in the center. We’d dump the crabs on the newspapers and tare them up. Steaming them is real easy. You will need a big pot and some type of screen to keep the crab out of the liquid. If you have a clam steamer it will work great.

Add 1 part water and 1 part Apple Cider Vinegar to the pot and bring to a boil. Add live (always live, never ever dead) blue crabs, sprinkle each layer generously with Old Bay Seasoning. Cook for 30 to 40 minutes until the crabs turn bright orange. Melt some butter in a separate pot and get your crab crackers out, the good eating begins.

“When the going gets weird, the weird turn pro”
Hunter S. Thompson



There’s Gold In Them Thar Hills,
and Bunches of Other Stuff, Too!

Entering Arizona on Westbound.
Arizona is a land beyond compare for the rockhound and treasure hunter. With over 700 minerals, including quantities of gold and silver, a vast array of fossil traces of ages long ago, and a rich history of exploration and conquest, and mining, Arizona presents a rare and exquisite adventure fitting for the most jaded of hunters. Arizona is a leading producer of copper, gemstones, silver, gold and 18 industrial minerals. This month we are going to take a look at gold and silver in Arizona, and a few of the legends of lost treasures and mines throughout the land.

Arizona is thought to have been populated as early as 25,000 B.C. by small hunting/gathering tribes and by 11,000 years ago Native Americans began moving into the territory. By the mid 1500’s Spanish explorers were roaming the territory in search of fabled cities of gold . By the early 1800’s the territory was owned by the Mexicans, and by 1840 end of the Mexican war delivered the state territories to the control of the US – just in time for the gold rush which brought prospectors to the area by the tens of thousands. Relics, lost mines, rich placiers, gold, silver, copper, and even lost settlements can be the reward for the avid searcher in Arizona.

Canyon Arizona.
Arizona has produced over 498 tonnes of gold. While possibilities of lode gold strikes continue to this day, more lightweight gold prospectors looking for placier gold are far from limited in their choice of areas to hunt in Arizona. At least 15 counties in Arizona are known as gold bearing. In many areas there is still plenty of land open for the prospector. Of course, private lands can sometimes be prospected with permission of the owner, but if you can’t get permission to hunt one location in this vast prospector’s wonderland, you are not out of the game. There is no lack of open area to search. While the more traditional placier prospector will find the streams welcoming and productive, those preferring to hunt with metal detectors can turn up impressive nuggets throughout any of the gold bearing regions.

Gold, silver, and copper bearing counties in Arizona are:
Apache, Cochise, Coconino, Gila, Graham, Greenlee, Maricopa, Mohave, Navajo, Pima, Pinal, Santa Cruz, Yavapai, Yuma

As with any other state, there are laws governing the recovery of gold, so please make sure you are following the laws when you hunt. Those who violate the laws risk having everyone’s rights to hunt being taken from them. It is also a good idea to write to legislators and voice your concern for the protection of your right to hunt, or to thank them for respecting your right after having the time of your life there!

Copper and Silver are also abundant metals in the region and Arizona has long been among the national leaders of production of these metals. While copper is still mined quite heavily in the state, many silver mining areas now exist in the form of ghost towns – just one more splendid treat for the hunter of antiquities, metals, and…um…ghosts.

Ghost town “Jerome” Arizona.
Arizona landscapes are riddled with abandoned mines and ghost towns. It is not likely that you can travel too far around the state without running into a few of the hundreds of ghost mines or towns of the region. At least 60 I have seen listed are posted historical sites. While these are excellent places to tour if opened to the public,, it is absolutely forbidden to hunt on a posted historical site in the state. Fines and penalties are extraordinary for doing so. That is not to worry you, or impede your hunt, however, for there are plenty uncharted of abandoned locations still unposted (and some possibly yet undiscovered) for the off the beaten track explorer. It is recommended highly that you pay attention to antiquity laws when hunting even the most remote of abandoned homesteads. No matter how remote a find is, it is important to leave the site in the condition in which you found it. No one is hunting for your holes, trash, and destruction and by leaving such traces you risk seeing more areas shut down to public usage.
If you are more interested in finding unknown settlements than perusing through ghost towns, Arizona holds many possibilities for the archaeology hunter, too. With a 16,000 year history of inhabitation and little knowledge of the early residents, much remains still to be uncovered. The first Spanish explorers arrived believing there were cities of gold in the area. While these cities may or may not actually exist, cliff and pit dwellings have been, and are still being discovered scattered throughout the mountains and canyons. Any discoveries of relics or ancient settlement within the state could lead to unlocking secrets of the earliest people in our lands. No matter how insignificant you feel what you have found may be, you may actually find it an important discovery. Who knows, you might even find one of the fabled Golden cities. Now wouldn’t that make the trip a tad worthwhile?

Arizona isn’t just a leader in metal production – it is also the National leader of legends of lost treasure. Legends in Arizona range from small personal caches to whole gold and silver mines. There are many reasons that treasures were buried or lost. Mines were lost simply because finders did not record the location accurately enough to find their way back once they left, or died without revealing the location. Others hid entrances to avoid discovery, then never returned again. Thieves often buried caches to avoid capture and others buried loot because of threat of attack, theft, or, in later years, because the possession of gold had become illegal.

Superstition Mountains Arizona. .
Some of the scores of legendary treasures to go in search of include the following:

The possibly most famous legend in the US is the tale of the Lost Dutchman mine. The Lost Dutchman is said to be somewhere in the Superstition Mountains. The legend of the mine has continued to grow over the years thanks to many hunters who set out in search of the mine to never return. The difficulty in finding the mine is not only due to the rugged terrain of the Superstitions, but also the fact that the entrance of the mine was hidden because the owners feared that the mine would be discovered. They did a very good job hiding the mine. To this day it is still lost.

Granite Mountain is believed to be the hiding place of caches from two stagecoach robberies.

Somewhere in the Little Horn Mountains there said to be a ledge of red ore laced with gold. It was revealed to a man by an Indian he had befriended but the man was too old to make the trip back to it again. His sons tried several times to relocate it without success. To this date no one else has found it either.

Typical landscape Arizona.
Bronco Billy, the infamous train robber, was once arrested and held for his part in the theft of Wells Fargo gold. He was later released, however, and there is no evidence that he ever returned to claim his abandoned stashes of stolen wealth. It is thought that the Wells Fargo loot is still somewhere in Solomonville just waiting for the lucky hunter.

Wells Fargo also lost a cache of gold to the Red Jack Gang, led by a man who went by both Jack Averill and Red Jack Almer. After orchestrating a series of stagecoach robberies, Jack was finally killed by lawmen at his hideout near Wilcox. It is thought that there is still a stash of gold coins buried near his hideout.

The owner of a mine in one of the mountain ranges surrounding the La Posa Plain was traveling across the plain in the region of some sand dunes one day. He came across a black hill containing fine specimens of high assay gold. He recorded his find in his notebook and set back for his mine. When his horse arrived without him at the camp, the miners found the gold samples and the notebook. They set out in search of the mine owner and eventually found his body – but they never were able to locate the gold bearing hill recorded in the mine owners journal. No one else since then has either.

A man who went by the name of “Hashknife Charely seems to have misplaced 38 bars of gold near Sononita in Santa Cruz county.

Train Robber, Roy Gardner, led officials on many a merry chase between prison escapes and robberies. His path of robberies and imprisonments covered California, Washington, and Arizona. It is thought that his cache from a 1921 train robbery is hidden near Flagstaff in or near the cone of an extinct volcano.

Bars of gold are known to be hidden somewhere in the San Fransisco Mountains of Coconino county. In Bisbee Junction a train robbery cache has never been recovered.

The list goes on…and on…and, well, you get the idea.

May legends of lost treasure in Arizona are actually documented losses. Unlike some areas, many of the lost treasures consist of bars of gold. If you should find one of these caches of gold bars and the bars contain assayers stamps, you might find yourself doubly lucky! These stamped bars have value well above those containing no stamps. Whether you choose to hunt obscure legends or apply your talents to the more sure find, you can be assured of a large choice of legends to choose from.

Saguaro National Park Arizona.
Whether your choice of metal hunting is panning streams, metal detecting, or hunting for caches or mines which others lost, you will find your type of hunt just waiting for you in Arizona. The country is rugged to extremes in some areas. Nights can be cold even when the days are extremely hot — and in mid-summer the days are definitely hot. A 120 degree day is not unusual and the hunter should plan accordingly. Take plenty of water wherever you go. Do not hunt in extreme heat. Plan the hunt for off seasons if possible. If you are hunting during the hot part of the summer there, plan to be done with your hunt before noon. Know desert survival tactics before going so you can save yourself if caught out in severe heat.

It is also a good idea to study up on the wild life in the areas you are going to hunt. Rattlesnakes are common in most locations, as are scorpions and spiders. Coyotes and Cougars still roam many of the regions.

NEVER… I repeat, NEVER go into a mine tunnel or shaft. These are very hazardous places and some are so dangerous even search and rescue teams will not venture in after you. Even those which you think look safe are not necessarily so and some contain cyanide gases which have no odor and cannot be detected, but are immediately deadly if inhaled.

Sunset and cactus Arizona desert.
With some foreknowledge and good safety sense you may just be the lucky hunter to put a close to one of the legends of Arizona. Perhaps you will just have to settle for a pouch full of gold and silver nuggets instead.

Next month find out about the gemstones and fossils of Arizona.



You might have started to think from the members you have met on the newsletter that all members of RHS1 are in the rock business. Not so. Some people enjoy the field as a healthy, educational, and fun hobby.

This month Member Clayton Canfield (member alias: Clayton Canfield)from the Springfield area of Oregon, is here to tell us about his hobby. I’d also like to mention that Clayton signed up to RHS1 looking for rockhound pals to split costs of hunting trips and share ideas of where to hunt. That said, here’s Clayton to tell you a little bit about himself.

I work a 48 hr on with 96 hr off shift at the coast as a paramedic. I live with my wife in the Willamette valley. I however do not have any kids yet I am 30 yrs old.

I started rock hounding 27 years ago when I was 3 my grandfather took me out and taught me geology over the years and ever since I have gotten the bug:) When I was about 7 or so, my grandfather and I were out in the middle of nowhere in the California dessert, and I found what I thought was gold so I loaded down my pants with so much of it that I seemed to have lost my pants several times when walking. Come to find out later it was pyrite:)

I like just about any pretty rock tho my favorite is blue stuff, and thundereggs. Tho all rock is great if its pretty. I also enjoy metal detecting and gold prospecting. My goal someday is to be able to own a large tumbler, rock saw, and of course lap polisher.



Aerial view of Crater Lake caldera. Photo by W.E.Scott.
Courtesy of USGS/Cascades Volcano Observatory.


If you have been following with us at RHS1 as we explore some of the more volatile nature of our earth, you are by now familiar with the fact that Yellowstone park is one of our planets largest and most deadly volcanic calderas. It has exploded many times throughout the continent’s history. The last explosion happened around 600,000 years ago. Half of the United States was covered with ash and debris. Animal deaths linked to that explosion have been found with volcanic glass dust in their lungs up to one thousand miles away from the point of the eruption.

A super volcano the size of Yellowstone could be devastating to life on earth. In recent years this caldera began acting as if it may be gearing up for another explosion. Ground above the caldera began heating, land started pushing upward.  Needless to say, Scientists have been busy devoting attention to the volcanic caldera in an attempt to find out more about this dangerous hot spot. Their studies have produced some rather interesting, and possibly comforting, news.

The Yellowstone caldera is a volcanic plume. A volcanic plume is a type of mantle plume. Some plumes spread like a mushroom beneath the surface of the crust. They will warm the ground under which they form, but do not cause eruptions. A volcanic plume, as the name indicates, erupts through the surface spewing the hot mantle material unto the earth and into the atmosphere. Most of us are familiar at least rudimentarily with volcanoes.

The Yellowstone volcano is a monstrously large volcanic caldera known as a super-volcano and as far as super-volcanoes run, it is as big as they get. A blast from the eruption of this monster could kill life immediately for hundreds of miles of radius around the volcano and a bit more slowly for hundreds more. Eventually, because of the large particles of dust emitted into the air, most of the planet would be affected by the eruption. In the last few years the ground over this caldera has been heating up.

Researchers funded by the National Science foundation (NSF) found that seismic energy from earthquakes slows down in the rocks beneath S. Idaho and NW Wyoming. By studying how temperature and other processes affect the speed at which seismic energy travels they were able to estimate the temperature of the Yellowstone caldera. The results were a bit surprising. It seems that Yellowstone caldera is actually quite a bit cooler than had been expected – only about 50 to 200 degrees Celsius hotter than the surrounding area, and not as hot as many other much less potent volcanoes even though it sits on one of the largest plumes known.

The conclusion the scientists have released is that the plume has become disconnected from its heat source, the Earth’s core. They warn that this fact does not mean that Yellowstone is extinct at this time. The plume is still very hot.

Sally Taylor…RHS1 Earthwatch.

Image and info credits for this edition:

Wikipedia: Odyssey Marine Exploration: Nasa: F. Scott Crawford: Sean Dougherty:

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