RHS1 Connector – February 2007

RHS1 Connector – February 2007

In this issue…Feature Article: – “Enigmas of the Past” — Rockhound Recipes and Tips: -Thom’s column — Feature Article: – Crystals in the 21st century; —Treasure Hunters Update: -Old Charter Salvage.

Insect trapped in Amber



Hair styles change. Technology changes. Species of plants and animals come and go and change over the eons – except some of those at microscopic size. Amber, the fossilized sap of trees, is well known for its inclusions of interesting ancient insect fossils. Insects apparently are not the only life form that has become embedded within amber, however. Scientists studying amber from about 220 MYA discovered fossilized bacteria, algae, protozoans, and fungi within the stone.

Amber pendants.
While that might be enough to excite a scientist (and the rest of us) on its own, the real discovery was that in all the eons since these micro-organisms were preserved, their modern counterparts were almost unchanged physically from those ancient specimens, and in some instances were completely unchanged. At the microscopic level, the changes in the earth, climate, and lifeforms since the rise of the dinosaurs, and possibly before, have seemingly gone completely unnoticed.

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Seaport in the Sky


The city of Tiwanaku 72 km (44 miles) west of La Paz, Bolivia – 16°33’17″S, 68°40’24″W.
For the second story of in this series RHS1 brings you the enigma of Tiwanaku…

The city of Tiwanaku (Spanish spellings: Tiahuanaco and Tiahuanacu) is located in the Bolivian Andes 12,500 feet (over 2 miles) above sea-level. It is located 12 miles south from shores of Lake Titicaca.


Lake Titicaca: Bolivia seen from space.
The city of Tiwanaku is dated at c.200 AD by conventional archeology via fragments of pottery recovered from the site. According to early estimates, at its maximum extent, the city covered approximately 5.0 square kilometers, and had as many as 40,000 inhabitants.

However, satellite imaging was used recently to map the extent of fossilized suka kollus (artificially raised earth mounds for crops ) across the three primary valleys of Tiwanaku, arriving at population-carrying capacity estimates of anywhere between 285,000 and 1,482,000 people.

What is special about Tiwanaku is that evidence exists that shows Tiwanaku was a seaport, the city has docks, mooring, and harbour facility’s (Posnansky, 1945) . So what is a seaport doing 2 miles above sea level and 12 miles from the nearest water?

First question “is it a seaport?”

  • Millions of fossilized sea-shells litter the area.
  • Abundant presence of fossilized oceanic flora and fauna.
  • Geologists estimate a titanic raising of land around 100 million years ago is responsible for the fossils.
  • Archeological Data is not coherent with the geological estimation.
  • some of the archeological remains are 6 feet below the earth’s surface. The geo-physical topology of the area cannot account for this enigma. The mountain ranges surrounding Tiwanaku are not elevated enough to permit sufficient runoff of water or wind erosion to cover the ruins to this depth.
  • Lake Titicaca is saline with an abundance of marine creatures creating a marine eco-bio-diversity.
  • There are tilted seashore lines, lime deposits and silt around Tiwanaku indicating the former presence of water.

    Click here or the image below for more
    detailed information about Tiwanaku.


    Docks at Puma Punku,Tiwanaku.
    So Whats a seaport doing 2 miles up a Mountain? There are various theories…

    “A great flood..That left only the mountain tops as islands so docks were needed”

    …Err A flood 2 miles deep!…All over the earth…Were did the water go? were did it come from!!?

    Such a weight on the tectonic plates of the globe would have sent Chandler’s wobble “totally bananas”

    As well: The poor refugees fleeing this titanic cataclysm scurrying to the mountain tops…Arrived above the new sea level; Crying “Good grief! Whats happening? What shall we do? Some quick witted individual replied “Quick let’s build a port with monolithic blocks weighting hundreds of tons”…..”To which the survivor’s responded “Wow! Great idea…”
    If Tiwanaku. is correctly dated at c200 AD…Some one else in the annals of recorded history would have spotted a 2 mile deep flood over the entire planet…However no one at this epoch mentions it..

    As a theory this will not fly at all…

    It was originally by the sea and was pushed up to it present position by a cataclysm.

    Thats the only thing thats sounds logical…However cataclysm? the only forces I can imagine capable of throwing a city 2 miles up in the air are Gravity, or the sudden stopping of the planets rotational spin. If the date AD 200 is correct this is when near enough we need a cataclysm capable of creating instant mountains; Again no one noticed…

    I do not doubt the validity of the dating of the pieces of pottery upon which the dating of the commencement of a civilisation is based…However the fact we have port up a mountain and the type of event capable of putting it there is absent from this time period, is a bit of a teaser..Mmmm

    The moon does not cause the tide to go in and out by pulling the water, its passage causes the earth to bulge, to ripple, and the water flows off the bulge this is the force of gravity in action…The presence close to the planet earth of another planet or large mass exerting a strong gravitational force could tear up “the floor” the surface of our planet. Not a bulge instead a major upward movement as the tectonic plates buckled on a scale and mass that depass imagination, ensuring that what go up , stays up, including cities….
    Yes I believe gravity can do this…

    The sudden stopping of the planets rotational spin.

    Wow..As the Earth spins at 1,000 mph…..If it were to “STOP” everything that was lose would keep on moving at 1000 mph including the tectonic plates…We are talking autoroute pile-up here…Yep I reckon that’s in with a chance, of hurling a city 2 miles up in the air…Mind you, why and how the world would stop spinning is another matter altogether…


    Anyone with a theory or answer to this enigma please feel free to send it to the editor at RHS1 and we will publish it..Please ensure that your answer does NOT contain…Divine intervention, Paranormal activity, extra-terrestrial interference. We do not expect answers to adhere to the strict discipline of the “scientific method”, however we request that answers be logical and concur with the laws of physics.


    All the best…Indiana

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    Global Rockhound Community



    “What’s going on now?”

    Don and the guys are off again – this time to an undisclosed location, and this time it is a trip for themselves and not a location gig for someone else. Needless to say, Don was quite keyed up the last time we spoke. He did promise to call me upon his return and fill me in on everything that we can repeat publicly, so you might want to check the Gazette this month sometime. He said he wouldn’t be out there any too long this time.

    Although I can’t give you any more news about the current goings on – he did leave me some photos to share with you that might just give you some insights for the next time you take your metal detector out into the fields with you.


    What you may already know is that sometimes there’s just no physical clue that a treasure lurks.


    Sometimes you can get lucky and there will be clues.


    Sometimes there are relics just waiting for you.


    If you’re planning on staying awhile, make sure you have a comfy portable home.


    And don’t ever forget the reasons you are out there.



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Global Rockhound Community

RHS1 Club News

Hi Folks,

I would like to thank our members for their emails. I always like to meet people personally, but would also like to add that other members want to meet you, too. It doesn’t matter if you are a professional or a beginner, RHS1 is for all levels of rockhounds so don’t be bashful. We all started somewhere and we all have a lot more to learn. So post away in those forums and quit worrying about what you don’t know! If you get laughed at it will most likely be because we all remember being there ourselves at one time or another. If you are a pro, there are a lot of people waiting to hear what you have to tell them.

I’ve had a few comments from members that they did not realize that we had some of the features we do. If you haven’t really looked over the site, you might just be surprised at what you might find when you do. Take some time and click around a bit. RHS1 is a lot more than just a forum and photo gallery.

If you have not visited the Gazette lately, you might want to go there and see member Mike Barnhart’s ad for the sale of his late father’s collection. Even if you are not in the market for buying, if you like picture galleries of gemstones, this is one good site for you to browse. Remember – if you are a member with a story or an ad or news of any kind that you want out, let me know. The Gazette is syndicated so you will reach thousands.

We are still working on a few very exciting features, so stay tuned. We may seem a bit slow, but we are good and you will like what we’re doing, trust me on this one. But…..we aren’t telling yet so you’ll just have to watch for Gazette announcements.

That’s about it for right now folks. Looking forward to hearing from those who were down in Tucson for the shows this year.

Rockin’ the Third Rock – and the Fourth



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Global Rockhound Community



“Spice up your Burgers”

I got to be honest with you here. I have never been fond of hamburgers. In fact when I was a kid my father turned me on to what I guess would be the poor man’s version of Steak Tartare which was simply raw hamburger with salt, pepper, and vinegar on it. I preferred my hamburger like that for years, and still eat it whenever I can get fresh ground from the butcher’s. I know bacteria, not safe, dangerous. To kinda quote a line from an old Tex Williams song “I’ve been eaten them all my life and I ain’t dead yet”

So back to the Spicy Burgers. These are pretty simple to make having only five ingredients. After you form the patties you can freeze them, or cook them right up. It’s ok to refrigerate them for up to 48 hours also, but I wouldn’t go past that. I get 4 to 5 burgers out of a pound of ground beef, so use that as a guide when you decide how many you need to make. I like to use either 85% or 90% lean beef, I prefer the 90% but having worked as a butcher in a supermarket before, I know there isn’t much of a difference between the two and if you look the packages of meat over you can usually find 85% that is as lean as the 90% for around 40 to 50 cents a pound less.

  • 1 pound ground beef
  • 1 tablespoon basic rub
  • 1 tablespoon Worcestershire Sauce
  • 1 teaspoon hot sauce
  • ½ teaspoon onion powder

Now the first fun part of these burgers. Put all the ingredients in a bowl, stick your hands in the stuff (wash your hands first, ok?) and start mushin’ the ingredients together. Squeeze it through your fingers, mash it in your hands, smash it in the bowl, do what ever you have to do to get everything blended, just have fun doing it. Now form the mix into balls , like I said before figure on getting 4 to 5 balls out of it. Now go wash your hands again, they got to be pretty messy by now.

Take a piece of clear plastic wrap and lay it out on your table or counter top. Place one of the hamburger balls on one half of it and fold the other half over the top. Not pat the ball down into a patty. I like to make mine thin, but that is a personal choice. If you like fatter burgers, go for it.

After you have made all the burgers wrap each one in clear plastic wrap and stick them in the freezer or refrigerator depending on when you are going to cook them. These are great to take camping if you bring a cooler along. If you do, freeze them first so they will stay fresh longer.

Now the second fun part, cooking them and eating them. Now with all the prep and mixing you’ve done there is always a chance of contaminating the meat. So always cook hamburgers till they are at the very least, no longer pink inside. I prefer eating mine on toast instead of hamburger buns. If you’re camping this makes sense because it is one less item (the buns) you need to bring with you.

To really gonzo up the burgers I cook up some bacon first, then I’ll slice up some sharp cheddar cheese and make cheddar bacon burgers out of them. Serve that up on toast with lettuce and tomato, a little ketchup, mustard, mayonnaise, and another slice of toast on top. Good eaten that you can cook on a stove, grill, or even a hot rock in your campfire.

About Thom…

Thom Meyer is a retired professional chef who has a degree in Culinary Arts – Also an avid camper and most importantly a person who likes to eat. Lately he has been involved in marketing and building websites when not using WordPress for them, a process of which in some circles he is considered an authority. Among his many websites that he maintains are www.recipes-4-all.com and www.wp-revealed.com



“When the going gets weird, the weird turn pro”
Hunter S. Thompson

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Global Rockhound Community



This month: The 21st Century, The Crystal Age

Quartz Crystal.


In the age of Atlantis the world was run by crystal power. Thousands of years later, in the 21st Century, here we are learning all over again how crystal power can be harnessed and used to make life easier. Science has once again captured the knowledge of the vibration of crystals, and has harnessed the power of these vibrations in extraordinary ways that we think little about during our day to day lives. The very nature of our day to day lives, however, has been completely changed by the scientific uses that have evolved for the use of crystals.

:The piezoelectric nature of the quartz crystal was first demonstrated to the world as early as 1880 by Pierre and Jacques Curie. By correctly applying mechanical pressure to the quartz crystal, electricity can be generated from it. Electricity can also be applied to the crystal to create mechanical stress. This may not seem like such a major discovery from the sound of it, but much of our modern technology owes its existence to this feature of the quartz crystal.

Because of these piezoelectric nature of the crystal, it can receive and process, and transmit energy in precise patterns of vibrations. These vibrations are those used in sonar equipment to produce the sounds that are returned to the source when they hit an object, allowing the detection of not only the object itself, but it’s distance as well. Quartz is also used in radio transmission, amplifiers, and microphones as they will allow the transmission of sound accurately in any temperature. The same principle of the accurate and steady oscillation of the vibration of the crystals is used in quartz watches and clocks which have tuning forks made of quartz to which a periodic voltage is applied.

If you have used anything digital or computerized, you have used quartz crystals. In computer chips, quartz crystals have been dipped in silicon and sliced into disks. These disks are used to create the timing signals necessary in the operation of digital electronics. The computer chips containing the crystals are used in everything from digital toasters in your kitchen to computers, cars, and airplanes.

Quartz is being used in nano-scale memory chips as well. These chips allow for the storage of memory when no electricity is present.

A new technology using quartz crystals to bring us beyond electricity is now being studied. It is called Optical computing will allow NASA and the military to use interconnects based on photons rather than electrons. The systems run by optics will be immune to interferences from electromagnetic pulses. The optically run systems will be used in avionics, space travel, sonar, radar, and image processing, to name a few applications.

Now if that isn’t enough to make you realize the importance of crystals play in the formation of society in the 21st century, consider the next item. Crystals are even used in cigarette lighters to produce the sparks necessary to ignite the fuel.

It is said history repeats itself. Our first view of history is that of a civilization of great technological advancement which ran on crystal power. Today our society relies on the power of crystals for its technology. Will we be smart enough not to destroy ourselves with this crystal power this time?


Image credits for this edition: Wikipedia: Don Patterson:

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