FEATURE FUN FACT
If you are looking for minerals this Forth of July, take a good look at the sky. The colors in fireworks are produced through the use of minerals. White/silver – rutile, zircon, magnesite;Red – strontium; Blue – copper; Green – Barrite; Yellow – halite; Gold – charcole and iron
GREENLAND THE NEW KLONDYKE ?
By Indiana and the webdroids…Wednesday, October 05, 2005
Did you know Greenland has a flag? I didn’t, I do not recall ever seeing it….When I was a kid I collected “Flags of world” cards free with bubblegum…So I am pretty good on flags…I do not remember Greenland’s flag because its new as flags go.(image above left: Above right: Greenland coat of arms) Here is a little info about Greenland…
The world’s largest island, Greenland is about 81% ice-capped. Vikings reached the island in the 10th century from Iceland; Danish colonization began in the 18th century and Greenland was made an integral part of Denmark in 1953. It joined the European Community (now the European Union) with Denmark in 1973 but withdrew in 1985 over a dispute over stringent fishing quotas. Greenland was granted self-government in 1979 by the Danish parliament. The law went into effect the following year. Denmark continues to exercise control of Greenland’s foreign affairs.
The flag of Greenland was designed by Greenland native Thue Christiansen. It features two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a large disk slightly to the hoist side of center. The entire flag measures 12 by 18 parts; each stripe measures 6 parts; the disk is 8 parts in diameter, horizontally offset by 7 parts from the hoist to the center of the circle, and vertically centered. Thue Christiansen described the white stripe as representing the glaciers and ice cap; the red stripe, the ocean; the red semicircle, the fjords; and the white semicircle, the icebergs and pack ice Its local name in the Greenlandic language is Erfalasorput, which means “our flag”, but Aappalaartoq (meaning “the red”) is also used for both the Greenlandic flag and the Dannebrog. Why call it Greenland? The story is alleged to be that the first settler in Greenland, Erik the Red, as reported in old Icelandic sagas named the new country Greenland in order to attract other settlers there. Some historians, have claimed that due to climatic changes, weather in Greenland in the Middle Ages might have been much warmer than today.
Why the Interest in Greenland?…According to NASA the glaciers and ice cover are thinning …Much of Greenland is virgin terrain never checked, worked, or surveyed…the melting ice is produceing fast flow water courses..flowing over the bedrock and presumebly washing down sediment and mineral debris…Here’s the facts…
Greenland’s Ice Sheet Melting
In a recent study by researchers from NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center shows that Greenland’s ice sheet, about 8% of the Earth’s grounded ice (Antarctica possessing 91% of land ice), is losing ice mass. A NASA high-tech aerial survey shows that more than 11 cubic miles of ice is melting along Greenland’s coasts yearly, accounting for 7% of the annual global sea level rise. Measurements over the last century suggest that sea level has risen 9 inches, enough to cause flooding in low-lying areas, when a storm occurs. Sea level increase could worsen, if the present trend continues, says William Krabill, lead author of the NASA study.
New measurements show that the flow of ice in the Greenland ice sheet has been accelerating since 1996 during the summer melt season. The results suggest that the ice sheet may be responding more quickly to the warming climate than previously thought.
In an article published in Science magazine’s online Sciencexpress June 7, Jay Zwally, an ICESat Project scientist at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., Waleed Abdalati, Polar Program scientist at NASA Headquarters, Washington, and colleagues report that increases in ice velocity during the summer are correlated with the timing and the intensity of ice sheet surface melting.
Using periodic Global Positioning Satellite measurements from 1996 through 1999, the researchers discovered that the ice flow speeds up from 31.3 cm (12.3 inches) per day in winter to a peak of 40 cm (15.7 inches) per day in the summer when surface melting is largest. “This study demonstrates that surface meltwater travels quickly through the 1200 meter (approx. 3/4 mile) thick ice to the bedrock to make the ice slide faster. This process was known for decades to enhance the flow of small mountain glaciers, but was not known to occur in the large ice sheets,” Zwally said.
This schematic highlights glaciological features of the ice sheet including surface lakes, crevasses, and large openings called moulins, that stretch up to 10 meters in diameter and drain to the bedrock.
The meltwater makes its way from the surface to the bedrock by draining into crevasses and large tunnels called moulins that may be as large as 10 meters (approx. 33 feet) in diameter. More meltwater underneath the ice sheet provides lubrication to allow the ice sheet to move faster toward the coastline of Greenland.
Over time, as ice melts from the top of the ice sheet, the ice thins and spreads out toward lower elevations closer to the coast. The meltwater also carries heat (in the form of water) from the top of the ice to the base of the ice that sits on the bedrock.
A separate study by Abdalati and Konrad Steffen of the University of Colorado showed that the melting of the ice sheet surface has been increasing at a rate of nearly 20% over the last 21 years, while summer temperatures in that same period have increased by one quarter of a degree Celsius (.45º Fahrenheit). The link between ice sheet melt and ice flow suggest that the increasing melt may be more significant than previously believed.
The faster ice flow, ice thinning and consequent lowering of the surface elevation of the ice sheet can open a feedback to more melting that has not been considered in computer models that predict ice sheet response to climate change.
NASA’s ICESat mission, which is planned for launch in December of this year, will use a laser altimeter to monitor ice sheet elevations and show elevation changes as small as 1 cm/yr. ICESat’s measurements will tell us whether the ice sheets are growing or shrinking overall, how much they are contributing to sea level change, and will help predict future changes in ice volume and sea level.
Zwally and his colleagues speculate that increased movement of the ice sheet due to more meltwater underneath the ice sheet may have contributed to the demise of the Laurentide ice sheet approximately 10,000 years ago. During that time, the Earth’s axis of rotation was more tilted toward the Sun causing warmer summers in the Northern Hemisphere.
Further, they suggest that the observed process may also have contributed to the extensive melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet during the last Interglacial period, some 125,000 years ago. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, previous studies have shown that during the last Interglacial period, carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in the atmosphere were relatively high, temperatures may have been higher than the present, and sea level may have been approximately 6 meters (19.5 feet) higher.
“During this time when the climate was warmer, the ice sheet was less extensive. With the predicted greenhouse warming we may be returning to similar conditions,” Zwally said.
This research was funded under NASA’s ICESat Project
The 66° paralell runs run though the Yukon in Alaska and Southern Greenland…Greenland presents the first massive mountain ranges travelling east from Alaska .. “Gold territory”… Is there any gold in them thar Greenland hills?…There sure is…
National Environmental Research Institute – Gold deposit in South Greenland
Since 1988 gold has been searched for in the Kirkespir Valley in South Greenland. The Kirkespir Valley is situated about 40 km northeast of Nanortalik, a town with a population of 1500. During 1993-2001 extensive geological investigations have been carried out by Nalunaq I/S, owned by the Canadian Crew Development Corporation and NunaMinerals A/S. These studies include diamond drilling of more than 13,000 m in 90 drill holes and a production of tunnels and raises of more than 3,000 m. The average gold concentration in the ore is above 30 g pr. The mining company expect to mine about 200,000 tons of ore annually, which is 3-4 times less than the annually amount mined in the Maarmorilik mine.
Mineral mining; in Greenland is big business..In fact its a national event….
Ujarassiorit, Greenland’s national mineral hunt – Mineral exploration is a very costly part of the mining industry. To combat this problem, Greenland has an annual “mineral hunt” called Ujarassiorit. The program was initiated in 1989 to actively involve the people of Greenland in some aspects of exploration work, and at the same time to create a positive attitude towards the mining industry. Only permanent residents of Greenland can compete for that prize money, which in 2003 had 50,000 DKK (about $7,000 US) as the top prize. The samples are sent, along with documentation about the samples and the exact location found, to the Bureau of Minerals and Petroleum in Nuuk (Capital city of Greenland).
Next month…Part 2…Diamonds in Greenland…Stay tuned….Indiana
THE IFAW NEEDS YOUR HELP TO RESCUE HURRICANE KATRINA ANIMAL VICTIMS
You may recognize this article from last month’s issue. In light of Rita’s visit so shortly after Katrina, the IFAW has their hands more than full. They have been saving sometimes hundreds of animals in a single day, and their help is needed more than ever now. This in turn means your help is needed more than ever. Please help the IFAW’s fight to save the pets caught in these disasters. Give generously – then go hug your pet and be grateful he is there with you. You will find the link in the text below.
The International Fund for Animal Welfare has taken it’s mobile units to New Orleans and are saving pets stranded in the storm by the hundreds. How long will they be able to continue their work? That depends on donations.
Imagine being stranded, lost, and unable to tell anyone where you belong or where your family is? Alone and frightened. Sick, hungry.
Imagine how you would feel if you just lost your home and were seperated from your best friend to put icing on the cake. Your loving companion gone. Imagine the call that told you he was safe.
You can give hope to the animals and the people that love them. Do it now. Then go hug your pet.RHS1
Hello Members. Our RHS1 merchant pages will be finished very shortly now. We have a new merchant – MapMart, and you will find them in the discount portal in the forum when their page is completed. The Detectors Unlimited discount portal will be up soon as well, so if you need maps or metal detectors, you will be able to purchase at discounts very soon.
If you haven’t been to the forums recently, we have added some features for those of you who have product and services to market, or websites which you need help with. Don’t forget – the club is not just a forum and gallery – it is an interactive place where we can help each other, learn from each other, and share resources as well as make friends. The more you take advantage of your club, the more benefits the club will be able to provide. We have added a few topics to the public view forum. All introduction posts have been moved to that area. Any other posts you have made are still in the private forums. If you aren’t shy, tell the world who you are and why you are a member.
We are now taking submissions for next months News Letter, so start thinking ahead if you have news to be included. And of course – you can have your news posted in the Gazette any time. The instructions for posting are in the Club Business section of the forum. If you have any questions pm either of the site administrators. We are always there to help you with anything that confuses you. That goes for any feature you are having trouble with, not just Gazette posts. With the site coming close to completion, this is a good time to get your posts, pictures, and articles in. We appreciate your efforts to aid in getting your club up and running.
See you in the forums.
TRAVEL – Florida
Now that the summer weather is slipping away, many of those who live in the northern states are beginning to plan winter vacations in Florida for rejeuvinating escapes from snow and ice. While much publicity has been given to Disneyworld, Busch Gardens, The Everglades, and other such attractions, there are many lesser known opportunities for adventure laying in wait for the rockhound and treasure hunter.
An extremely unique variety of agatized coral can be found in three locations of the state: Tampa Bay, the Econfina River, and the Withacoochee and Suwannee river beds. This is a find to delight either the gem or the fossil hunter, being a combination of fossil which has agatized during it’s preservation.
Treasure and artifact hunters have an array of ghost towns and early settlement, and fort areas to explore for artifacts and old coins. Seven wars and countless maritime battles, not to mention pirates have left the state littered with buried treasures. It was common practice to bury belongings when pursued, and many of these caches became lost when the owner died or could not recall the spot they left their booty. Hundreds of caches, and several large treasures have been recovered. Many have not.
Treasure hunters may also take to the seas in their search in the waters around the state. Though out the centuries ships have been sunk by reefs, wars, storms, and pirates. Large Spanish Galleon treasures have already been recovered (as well as pirate treasures along the shores) but many more remain for the motivated water loving treasure hunter.
So if Disneyworld isn’t your cup of tea, you have plenty of room to build your own adventure in America’s favorite winter retreat. For more information about lost treasure and ghost towns in florida:
ROCKHOUND RECIPES & TIPS
Rockhound Recipes and Tips welcomes you to our second edition. I’m Sandi Bowman, author of this column. I’d welcome your comments!
This time we’ll take a brief foray into some basic equipment facts that may be especially helpful for beginners.
***LEVELS OF GEAR:***
There are actually two major accepted ways to designate the level a specific item of gear is designed for.
One is the old seasons categories:
Level 1: Is designed for summertime use. Lightweight, cool and uncomplicated.
Level 2: Spans summer into fall and is a bit more protection against the cooler weather of fall/autumn. This is a good all-around choice for most people.
Level 3: Is designed for spring, summer, and fall. The more extreme temperature possibilities in spring and late fall will be well tolerated with level 3 rated gear.
Level 4: Is your all-year, any season including winter, gear. Maximum protection level against extreme cold weather. A lot sturdier to withstand wind and rain, sleet and snow. This is the level all you winter rockhound/backpackers/campers need.
***SIMPLIFIED GEAR LEVELS:***
While these parallel the first four somewhat they do differ as to the exact description that each level encompasses.
Level 1 is called FAMILY. The gear is designed for occasional use such as family vacations or campsite use. Backpackers who prefer to layer things to reduce bulk might look at this category for some items.
Level 2 is called INTERMEDIATE. It’s slightly higher priced than family level because it is generally sturdier for more frequent use in a broader range of conditions than campground use. It’s not for extreme conditions on an extended basis but is a good all-around serviceable designation.
Level 3 is termed ADVANCED. Gear in this category will be more rugged and withstand greater weather and terrain extremes than the first two levels. If you’re concerned about maximum bang for the buck, this might be a good option for you.
Level 4, EXPEDITION, is exactly what it says it is. Rugged, hard-working, professional equipment for the dedicated outdoor person. If you’re going rock-hounding to the top of the mountains and plan to stay awhile, this category of gear should help you avoid having sudden turns in the weather become a disaster for you.
We discuss food for the body but how many people take seriously the type of fuel they’ll use for cooking? Many areas don’t allow open campfires and wood to fuel one can be problematic. When you’re ready to choose a stove for cooking, here are some basic facts to help you. Propane is very heavy to haul in a backpack but it can be closed up and the remaining propane used later. Canned solid fuel must be burned out (emptied) once it is lit. If you make brief stops, this could be problematic. Butane has the disadvantage that the cannister must be empty before it can be safely removed from the appliance. Kerosene is readily available and lightweight but it has a very low flashpoint and should be avoided in hot environments. Not ideal for those people who are sensitive to the fumes. Evaporates rapidly. White gas is a good choice because it is lightweight and readily available most places. Clean and low odor compared to some fuels. Now all you need is the rest of your gear, including food.
Speaking of food, here’s a quick do-it-yourself meal to relieve a weary camp cook. Individual packages of Lipton or other instant soup. Tomato, chicken noodle, or mushroom recommended. Each person fixes their own soup in their cup with hot water. Provide saltines or oyster crackers for the soup and pre-packaged brownies for dessert. Everyone washes up after themselves so the cook can kick back and relax. This is a great way to get lunch over with quickly without overloading the stomach with hard to digest foods for the afternoon trek. Until next time, keep your feet dry and your heart happy.
© Sandra Bowman. All rights reserved.
FEATURE ARTICLE – SERIAL
METAPHYSICS AND THE HISTORY OF MINERALS
This months Gem: Ruby
Astrological Stone: Leo, Scorpio, Cancer, Sagittarius
The ruby is a form of corundum, an aluminum oxide mineral of which there are two varieties: sapphire and ruby.
The ruby gets its pigeon-blood red color from the element chromium and only corundum with this firey red color are considered rubies. All other colors are sapphire.
Corundum is one of the hardest minerals known to man, exceeded only by the diamond. Do not confuse hardness with roughness, however, as rubies can be chipped and broken when handled carelessly.
Rubies are one of the oldest gems to be known and coveted by humans. The name ruby is derived from the Latin word “ruber” which means red. In ancient Sanskrit, the stone was known as “the king of precious stones”.
Stone Age and Bronze Age mining tools have been found in Myanmar’s Mogok Valley in the area of the ruby mines there.
It is the stone of the war gods from ancient Rome. ‘Breastplate of Judgement’ of Aaron, described in the bible (Exodus: xxviii, 15-30) contained rubies.
In India rubies were used for offerings to Krishna and literature from several millenia there testifies to the importance of the ruby to the Indian people.
In China rubies were offered to Buddha. Snakes and dragons were also carved into the gems to draw power and money to the owner. The ruby can be found in Crown jewels from all eras and all over the world. It is also the first gemstone to be used for industrial purposes.
The ruby, known as the queen of gemstones, is a symbol of love and devotion. Wearing a ruby symbolizes nobility in men and passion in women. They have been thought to guard against wounds and loss of possessions, status, and health, to inspire courage, and to rekindle sexual prowess. It is used as an amulet for protection against sorrow, forced sex, bad dreams, illness, and evil spirits.
The color of the ruby is said to darken when the owner is in danger.
Metaphysically ruby is a very intense stone which should be chosen and used with great caution.It intensifies all emotions and amplifies both negative and positive energies. If used to gain control of or power over a lover, it will turn against the holder bringing the opposite of the desired effect. Used with care, it can strengthen and heal the heart and reproductive chakaras and the physcial systems associated with them.
The ruby can be helpful in all sincere matters of love including the love of the self. It destroys thoughts of limitation, heightens energy, motivates, strengthens, and promotes spiritual vision and devotion. Mental, physical, and spiritual systems are effected symboitically with the ruby so matters of the physical and emotional heart, and matters of physical and mental energy are healed simultaneously with the ruby.
Medically rubies have been used for the blood and heart. It clears bad cholesterol and clots, detoxifies blood, strengthens the heart muscle, and balances blood sugar. It has been used to cure snake bites and restore normal liver functions. Chronic fatigue syndrome and low sex drive are also said to respond to treatment with ruby.
The gift of a ruby is a symbol of friendship, love, and passion, and a protection for its owner.