Earthwatch Issue 5 Global Warming (con’t), and more

Earthwatch Issue 5 Global Warming (con’t), and more


Global Rockhound Community Environmental News E-zine.

Issue 05: May 2007: Editor Sally Taylor:

In this issue: Global warming:- IPCC 3rd Report:- Aral Sea UPDATE:-I Year Earthquake Results:-

RHS1 Global Rockhound Community Enviromental News E-zine. Monitoring, earthquakes, global warming, climate change, hurricanes and tornados, bio-diversity, keeping an eye on our fast changing planet. Climate change,global warming,earthquake, earthwatch,Chandler wobble, Chandler’s wobble,rockhound world center,


RHS1’s quest for the true cause of climate change


Image:SOHO:Graph:Hathaway and Wilson’s prediction for the amplitude of Solar Cycle 24. More

2012: Solar Maximum.

Our Climate; Our Future; Our Options; Synthesis;

Scary Monsters: The eye of Ra…Part 4

March 7, 2006

The next 11-year solar storm cycle should be significantly stronger than the
current one, which may mean big problems for power grids and GPS systems and other satellite-enabled technology, scientists announced today. The stronger solar storms could start as early as this year or as late as 2008 and should peak around 2012.

Click here to learn more

“. . . we do not even understand how our own star really works.”

Nobel Laureate William A. Fowler 1988,
Hello…Welcome to RHS1’s Solar system mission-O). What we are searching for are recent changes to the the planets of our solar system.

In Part three of this article we established as “a fact/near enough”, that the Sun was changing its behavior, becoming more active. Since then a far more radical and consequential event occurred…A new model of the sun was brought to my attention. According to the work of Michael Mozina and Dr. Oliver Manuel the sun may not be a large ball of gas at all. The current main stream scientific interpretation of the mechanics of “how the sun works” may indeed be an error.

This story is covered by our sister e-zine “The Mars Chronicle”…If the new model is correct and so far I have found no valid demonstrable evidence to the contrary…The whole theory of the creation of the universe “The big bang theory” collapses like a house of cards and its time redesign the cosmos. (Read first article below)

I have structured “the investigation of the planets” into sections one for each planet. The first text in blue gives a general profile of the the planet. Of course you can skip that and read the report under the blue text… So lets crack on! Beginning with….Mercury “Gods golf ball”.TCH

The Wheel of the Heavens.

The Solar System

“Current Planet/Physical alterations of the Earth are becoming irreversible. Strong evidence exists that these transformations are being caused by highly charged material and energetic non-uniformities in anisotropic interstellar space which have broken into the interplanetary area of our Solar System.

This “donation” of energy is producing hybrid processes and excited energy states in all planets, as well as the Sun. Effects here on Earth are to be found in the acceleration of the magnetic pole shift, in the vertical and horizontal ozone content distribution, and in the increased frequency and magnitude of significant catastrophic climatic events.

There is growing probability that we are moving into a rapid temperature instability period similar to the one that took place 10,000 years ago. The adaptive responses of the biosphere, and humanity, to these new conditions may lead to a total global revision of the range of species and life on Earth. It is only through a deep understanding of the fundamental changes taking place in the natural environment surrounding us that politicians, and citizens a like, will be able to achieve balance with the renewing flow of Planet/Physical states and processes.”

Published in Russian, IICA Transactions, Volume 4, 1997 *Professor of Geology and Mineralogy, and Chief Scientific Member,
United Institute of Geology, Geophysics, and Mineralogy, Siberian Department of Russian Academy of Sciences.

Click here to Read this Paper

I have quoted extensively from the paper of Dr Dmitriev in this part of our investigation. The language and phraseology seen strangely convoluted in parts..This I believe is the result of the translation from Russian into English and is the phraseology of the translator not Dr Dmitriev..For example the word “planetophysical” is not a word I have taken the liberty in my quotes to change this to Planet/Physical in order to avoid confusion.

Now Dr Dimtriev’s paper is 10 years old, since its publication much more evidence has accumulated to support his paper. Indeed, a report published by CNN (3rd May 07) stated that in the latest edition of the journal Geophysical Research Letters, A study, found that the actual rate at which summer sea ice had shrunk per decade during the past 50 years was more than three times faster than an average of 18 of the most highly regarded climate simulations. Meaning the I8 computer models were simply wrong.

“Climate change models of Arctic sea ice cover in September, the month when ice is usually at its minimum, suggest an average loss of 2.5 percent of ice cover per decade from 1953 to 2003. The worst case simulated by an individual model predicted a decade -on-decade reduction of 5.4 percent.

Yet when scientists studied observable data for the same period, including shipping logs, aerial photos and satellite images, they discovered the actual figure for ice loss from 1953 until 2006 to be 7.8 percent.

Furthermore, the rate of deterioration seemed to be accelerating, topping nine percent per decade since 1979.

The discrepancy between computer modelling and reality is most likely due to the fact that simulations have failed to fully take into account the impact of increased levels of carbon dioxide emissions in the atmosphere, the researchers believe.”


Or maybe they are barking up the wrong tree…More than 3 times faster than the calculations…Very suspect.

If CO2 is not the cause of global warming then the guys running these computer models can juggle and jiggle the carbon dioxide emissions till the cows come home because quite frankly its never going to work.

OK Just so you have your bearing before we start…You are here. (see co-ordinates below)

  • The planet Earth is in the Solar System.
  • The Solar System. is in the heliosphere.
  • The heliosphere is in oort cloud.
  • The oort cloud is in the galactic space of the Orion arm of the Milky Way Galaxy.

No 11 is the Orion arm: No 12 is the position of the Sun within the Orion Arm.

Artist’s impression of the oort cloud

Drawing of heliosphere. Created while all spacecraft were still within the termination shock. Voyager 1 has crossed that boundary.
The orbital speed of the solar system around the galactic centre is 217 km/s, i.e. 1 light-year in ca. 1400 years, and 1 AU in 8 days. (93,000000 miles) (11.625, 000000 miles per day) (I AU “astronomical unit” is the distance from the Earth to the Sun)

“In its travel through interstellar space, the Heliosphere travels in the direction of the Solar Apex in the Hercules Constellation. On its way it has met (1960’s) non-homogeneities of matter and energy containing ions of Hydrogen, Helium, and Hydroxyl in addition to other elements and combinations.

This kind of interstellar space dispersed plasma is presented by magnetized strip structures and striations. The Heliosphere [solar system] transition through this structure has led to an increase of the shock wave in front of the Solar System from 3 to 4 AU, to 40 AU, or more.

This shock wave thickening has caused the formation of a collusive plasma in a parietal layer, which has led to a plasma overdraft around the Solar System, and then to its breakthrough into interplanetary domains . This breakthrough constitutes a kind of matter and energy donation made by interplanetary space to our Solar System.”

* Published in Russian, IICA Transactions, Volume 4, 1997 *Professor of Geology and Mineralogy, and Chief Scientific Member,
United Institute of Geology, Geophysics, and Mineralogy, Siberian Department of Russian Academy of Sciences.

Click here to Read this Paper

Size comparison of terrestrial planets
(left to right): Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars

The Terrestrial Planets

Mercury (planet)

Mariner 10 photomosaic of Mercury
Mercury is the innermost and smallest planet in the solar system, orbiting the Sun once every 88 days. It ranges in brightness from about -2.0 to 5.5 in apparent magnitude, but is not easily seen as its greatest angular separation from the Sun (greatest elongation) is only 28.3 degrees. It can only be seen in morning or evening twilight. Comparatively little is known about the planet: the only spacecraft to approach Mercury was Mariner 10 from 1974 to 1975, which mapped only 40% – 45% of the planet’s surface.

Physically, Mercury is similar in appearance to the Moon as it is heavily cratered. It has no natural satellites and no substantial atmosphere. The planet has a large iron core which generates a magnetic field about 0.1% as strong as that of the Earth. Surface temperatures on Mercury range from about 90 to 700 K (-180 to 430 degrees C, -292 to 806 degrees F), with the subsolar point being the hottest and the bottoms of craters near the poles being the coldest.

Mercury…No news, from the messenger of the Gods… No changes to speak of found. However not a lot is known about this particular sphere as its a real weirdo with a given surface temperature of (-180 to 430 degrees C, -292 to 806 degrees F) you have apparently “some ice”.

“Despite the generally extremely high temperature of its surface, observations strongly suggest that ice exists on Mercury. The floors of some deep craters near the poles are never exposed to direct sunlight, and temperatures there remain far lower than the global average. Water ice strongly reflects radar, and observations reveal that there are patches of very high radar reflection near the poles. While ice is not the only possible cause of these reflective regions, astronomers believe it is the most likely.

The icy regions are believed to be covered to a depth of only a few meters, and contain about 1014 / 1015 kg of ice. By comparison, the Antarctic ice sheet on Earth has a mass of about 4X1018 kg, and Mars’s south polar cap contains about 1016 kg of water. The origin of the ice on Mercury is not yet known, but the two most likely sources are from outgassing of water from the planet’s interior or deposition by impacts of comets.”

Wow that’s a tough one LOL….You know why? Because If you apply in ratio, mathematically, the solar constant as on earth we are talking 30 1 kilowatt electric fires per square meter on a sphere that contains the highest percentage of iron in the solar system…

Now iron is an excellent conductor of heat..Given the download of energy from the Sun and the surface material which should contain some iron and in accordance with the laws of thermodynamics particularly conduction one would expect the surface to absorb and distribute this energy via conduction So even the the surface at the bottom of shadowed impact craters would “be warm”.

Comet debris as ice and outgassing of water that turns to ice on a planet were the Sun is giving it “flamethrower” is a wee bit “problematic” don’t you think Nasa ? -O)

I digress; NEGATIVE…Nothing of any observable consequence is happening to the planet Mercury…

Whoa! Hold the front page…Stop press. Since I wrote the above comment something has changed not related to our investigation. Mercury now has a liquid core!

The old solid state version of Mercury

The new liquid core version of Mercury:
Diagram showing the interior structure of Mercury. The metallic core extends from the center to a
large fraction of the planetary radius. Radar observations show that the core or outer core is molten.
Image credit: Nicolle Rager Fuller, National Science Foundation

Venus (planet):

Venus is the second-closest planet to the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days. It is the brightest natural object in the night sky, except for the Moon, reaching an apparent magnitude of -4.6. Because Venus is an inferior planet, from Earth it never appears to venture far from the Sun: its elongation reaches a maximum of 47.8 degrees. Venus reaches its maximum brightness shortly before sunrise or shortly after sunset, for which reason it is often called the Morning Star or the Evening Star.

Classified as a terrestrial planet, it is sometimes called Earth’s “sister planet”, for the two are similar in size, gravity, and bulk composition. Venus is covered with an opaque layer of highly reflective clouds, preventing its surface from being seen from space in visible light; this was a subject of great speculation until some of its secrets were revealed by planetary science in the twentieth century. Venus has the densest atmosphere of all the terrestrial planets, consisting mostly of carbon dioxide. The atmospheric pressure at the planet’s surface is 90 times that of the Earth.

Venus’ surface has been mapped in detail only in the last 20 years. It shows evidence of extensive volcanism, and some of its volcanoes may still be active today. Venus is thought to undergo periodic episodes of plate tectonics, in which the crust is subducted rapidly within a few million years, separated by stable periods of a few hundred million years.

“I certainly trust those data, something weird is going on in the upper atmosphere of Venus.The first bottom line is that we just don’t know what’s going on.

Dr. David Crisp from the NASA/Caltech Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

Whats happening on Venus? Here we do have changes to report. Venus is classed as POSITIVE / ACTIVE in our inquiry into changes in the behaviour of planets.

The UK journal New Scientist reported in 1980 (November 13) that data from the Pioneer Venus orbiter showed Venus to be radiating 15 percent more energy than is received from the Sun (later figures put it at 20 percent).

Now that perplexing state of affairs I wonder how it manages to do that ?
Unless of course the law of thermo dynamics are rubbish.

The much toted “Venus runaway greenhouse effect” with which some groups on the planet Earth are using to demonstrate the horror of what “could” happen here is rather “suspect”…

THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT:- It is the result of heat absorption by certain gases in the atmosphere (called greenhouse gases because they effectively ‘trap’ heat in the lower atmosphere) and re-radiation downward of some of that heat. Water vapor is the most abundant greenhouse gas, followed by carbon dioxide and other trace gases. Without a natural greenhouse effect, the temperature of the Earth would be about zero degrees F (-18 degrees C) instead of its present 57 degrees F (14 degrees C).
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Now given that the atmosphere of Venus more resembles an ocean than a body of gas. The atmospheric pressure at the planet’s surface being 90 times that of the Earth. A pressure equivalent to that at a depth of 1 kilometer under Earth’s oceans. Due to this thick, compressed, chemical soup atmosphere about 60% of the sunlight that falls on Venus is reflected out into space the other 40% has to then hack its way through 45 miles of compressed gas to the surface.

“The permanent cloud cover means that although Venus is closer than Earth to the Sun, the Venusian surface is not as well heated or lit”.

You know, there is not a lot of light at a depth of 1 kilometer under the ocean, in fact It starts to disappear at around 300 ft. The atmosphere of Venus is 45 miles deep…”Not well heated or lit” is a bit of an understatement. Its not possible to have a solar greenhouse effect without the Sun. You can however have a greenhouse effect if you have a separate energy source other than the Sun…Electrical, or chemical reaction, for example…Bit of a puzzler-O)

“The greenhouse effect cannot be magnified ad lib. Doubling the [glass] thickness may enhance its thermal insulation, so raising its temperature, but it will cut down the transmitted sunshine, so reducing its heat. In the end the process becomes self-defeating. . . . The sea is a perfect ‘greenhouse’ of this kind–none of the obscure heat from the bottom can escape into space. But it is not boiling; in fact it is not much above freezing point. Sagan’s deep atmosphere would behave in exactly the same way. . . . An adiabatic atmosphere of a mass envisaged by Sagan is possible only if it is heated from below. In other words, the surface of Venus would have to be kept at a high temperature by internal sources.”

V.A. Firshoff, in The Interior Planets,

The atmosphere of Venus is re-mixing its content it has lost vast amounts of sulphur and increased the oxygen content

“Astronomers observing the night side of Venus were surprised to find emissions from oxygen atoms as strong as those from aurora in the Earth’s atmosphere. The discovery is puzzling because the Venusian atmosphere is very different to our own – it contains very little oxygen and is dominated by carbon dioxide.”

Physics Web. Night-time on Venus.

Views of Venus’ surface from the south. The horizon seen at the bottom-right in both panels is about Venus’ equator. The top left of the images is located at about 60 degrees south latitude; the images centre is at 130 degrees west longitude. Both panels show the oxygen airglow in the night-side atmosphere of Venus, fully detectable only at specific infrared wavelengths. The images are built by a combination of colours: the airglow is blue, corresponding to 1.27 micrometres; yellow corresponds to 1.7 micrometres, and its modulation is due to the different cloud thickness in different areas. On the right panel the airglow appears in atmospheric structures similar to ‘clouds’. In the left image a slightly different colour scale has been used to emphasize the brightening of the limb (side view of the atmosphere) due to the airglow itself. (Credit: ESA/VIRTIS/INAF-IASF/Obs. de Paris-LESIA)

“Measurements to record the nightglow of Venus were carried out with the Keck telescope just before sunrise on November 20, 1999. Analysis of the resultant spectrum at the position of the oxygen green line showed strong emission from the terrestrial atmosphere and a comparable signal from Venus, with an intensity some 25 times (2500%) greater than the upper limits set by the (Russian) Venera results (from 1975).”

Alice Resnick. SRI International Makes First Observation of Atomic Oxygen Emission in the Night Airglow of Venus. SRI International, Jan. 18, 2001

The process of photo-disassociation

“The oxygen in the atmosphere of Venus is a very rare element. At high altitudes in the atmosphere, on the day-side of Venus, the strong flux of ultraviolet radiation coming from the Sun ‘breaks’ the molecules of carbon dioxide (‘CO2’) present in large quantity in the atmosphere, liberating oxygen atoms. These atoms are then transported by the so-called ‘sub-solar’ and ‘anti-solar’ atmospheric circulation towards the night side of the planet. Here the atoms migrate from the high atmosphere to a lower layer, called ‘mesosphere’, where they recombine into O2. By doing this, they emit light at specific wavelengths that can be observed through remote sensing from Earth and with Venus Express.”

Pierre Drossart, co-Principal Investigator on Venus Express VIRTIS instrument.

Now that is interesting The oxygen produces the airglow, ultra-violet from the Sun produces the oxygen if the airglow has increased then the oxygen has increased then we have a good case for ultra-violet increase thus a direct reference to the sun affecting Venus.

Charged Plasma Tail from Venus Extends to Earth (New Scientist, 1997)

“Using satellite data, an international team of researchers has found that Venus sports a giant, ion-packed tail that stretches almost far enough to tickle the Earth when the two planets are in line with the Sun.

“I didn’t expect to find it,” says team member Marcia Neugebauer of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. “It’s a really strong signal, and there’s no doubt it’s real.”

NASA’s Pioneer Venus Orbiter first found the tail in the late 1970s. Around 70,000 kilometres from the planet, the spacecraft detected bursts of hot, energetic ions, or plasma. The tail exists because ions in Venus’s upper atmosphere are bombarded by the solar wind, a stream of plasma that blows out from the Sun.

But now Europe’s Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), a project partly sponsored by NASA, has shown that the tail stretches some 45 million kilometres into space, more than 600 times as far as anyone realised.”

Jeff Hecht. Planet’s Tail of the Unexpected. New Scientist, 31 May 1997

“Current, in process, geological, geophysical, and climatical alterations of the Earth are becoming more, and more, irreversible. At the present time researchers are revealing some of the causes which are leading to a general reorganization of the electro-
magnetosphere (the electromagnetic skeleton) of our planet, and of its climatic machinery.

A greater number of specialists in climatology, geophysics, planetophysics, and heliophysics are tending towards a cosmic causative sequence version for what is happening. Indeed, events of the last decade give strong evidence of unusually significant heliospheric and planetophysic transformations.”

Published in Russian, IICA Transactions, Volume 4, 1997 *Professor of Geology and Mineralogy, and Chief Scientific Member,
United Institute of Geology, Geophysics, and Mineralogy, Siberian Department of Russian Academy of Sciences.

Click here to Read this Paper

Earth (planet)

Image Credit: Apollo 17 Crew, NASA


“The climatic and biosphere processes here on Earth (through a tightly connected feedback system) are directly impacted by, and linked back to, the general overall transformational processes taking place in our Solar System. We must begin to organize our attention and thinking to understand that climatic changes on Earth are only one part, or link, in a whole chain of events taking place in our Heliosphere.”

* Published in Russian, IICA Transactions, Volume 4, 1997 *Professor of Geology and Mineralogy, and Chief Scientific Member,
United Institute of Geology, Geophysics, and Mineralogy, Siberian Department of Russian Academy of Sciences.

Click here to Read this Paper

Mars (planet)

Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in our solar system. Mars is also known as the “Red Planet” due to its reddish appearance when seen from Earth. The prefix areo-, from the Greek god of war, Ares, refers to Mars in the same way geo- refers to Earth.

The surface of Mars is thought to be primarily composed of basalt, based upon the Martian meteorite collection and orbital observations. There is some evidence that a portion of the Martian surface might be more silica-rich than typical basalt, perhaps similar to andesitic stones on Earth, though these observations may also be explained by silica glass. Much of the surface is deeply covered by iron oxide dust as fine as talcum powder.

Although Mars has no intrinsic magnetic field, observations have revealed that parts of the planet’s crust have been magnetized. This magnetization has been compared to alternating bands found on the ocean floors of Earth. One theory, published in 1999 and reexamined in October 2005 with the help of the Mars Global Surveyor, is that these bands are evidence of the past operation of plate tectonics on Mars. Polar wandering could also explain this paleomagnetism.

Current models of the planet’s interior infer a core region approximately 1,480 km in radius, consisting primarily of iron with about 15-17% sulfur. This iron sulfide core is partially fluid, with twice the concentration of light elements that exists at the Earth’s core. The core is surrounded by a silicate mantle that formed many of the tectonic and volcanic features on the planet, but now appears to be inactive. The average thickness of the planet’s crust is about 50 km, and it is no thicker than 125 km.

Its rotational period and seasonal cycles are also similar to those of the Earth. It has the highest mountain in the solar system, Olympus Mons, the largest canyon in the solar system, Valles Marineris, and polar ice caps.

Mars has two moons, Phobos and Deimos, which are small and oddly-shaped. These may be captured asteroids similar to 5261 Eureka, a Mars trojan asteroid. Mars can be seen from Earth with the naked eye. Its apparent magnitude reaches -2.9, a brightness surpassed only by Venus, the Moon, and the Sun.

Mars is currently host to the most orbiting spacecraft, more than any planet other than Earth. It is also home to the two Mars Exploration Rovers (Spirit and Opportunity).

“Mars has global warming, but without a greenhouse and without the participation of Martians, these parallel global warmings — observed simultaneously on Mars and on Earth — can only be a straightline consequence of the effect of the one same factor: a long-time change in solar irradiance.”

Dr Habibullo Abdussamatov, head of the space research laboratory of the Russian Academies of Sciences’ Pulkovo Observatory and of the International Space Station’s Astrometry project, a long-term joint scientific research project of the Russian and Ukranian space agencies.

“One explanation could be that Mars is just coming out of an ice age, in some low-latitude areas, the ice has already dissipated.”

NASA scientist William Feldman after examining the the first Martian year data set from the Mars Odyssey mission.

” A series of Martian atmosphere transformations increasing its biosphere quality. In particularly, a cloudy growth in the equator area and an unusual growth of ozone concentration. In September 1997 the Mars Surveyor Satellite encountered an atmospheric density double that projected by NASA upon entering a Mars orbit. This greater density bent one of the solar array arms beyond the full and open stop. This combination of events has delayed the beginning of the scheduled photo mission for one year.”

Published in Russian, IICA Transactions, Volume 4, 1997 *Professor of Geology and Mineralogy, and Chief Scientific Member,
United Institute of Geology, Geophysics, and Mineralogy, Siberian Department of Russian Academy of Sciences.

Click here to Read this Paper

The Jovian Planets.

Jupiter (planet)


Jupiter: Scale
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and is the largest planet within the solar system. It is two and a half times as large as all of the other planets in our solar system combined. Jupiter, along with Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, it was classified as a gas giant. Together, these four planets are sometimes referred to as the Jovian planets. Jovian being the adjectival form of Jupiter.

When viewed from Earth, Jupiter can reach an apparent magnitude of -2.8, making it the fourth brightest object in the night sky. The planet was known by astronomers of ancient times.

The planet Jupiter is primarily composed of hydrogen with only a small proportion of helium; it may also have a rocky core of heavier elements. Because of its rapid rotation the planet is an oblate spheroid (it possesses a slight but noticeable bulge around the equator). The outer atmosphere is visibly segregated into several bands at different latitudes, resulting in turbulence and storms along their interacting boundaries.

A prominent result is the Great Red Spot, a giant storm that is known to have existed since at least the seventeenth century. Surrounding the planet is a faint planetary ring system and a powerful magnetosphere. There are also at least 63 moons, including the four large moons called the Galilean moons that were first discovered by Galileo Galilei in 1610. The largest of these moons is bigger than the planet Mercury.

Jupiter’s upper atmosphere is composed of about 93% hydrogen and 7% helium by number of atoms, or 86% H2 and 13% He by fraction of gas molecules see table at top. Since a helium atom has about four times as much mass as a hydrogen atom, the composition changes when described in terms of the proportion of mass contributed by different atoms.

Thus the atmosphere is approximately 75% hydrogen and 24% helium by mass, with the remaining 1% of the mass consisting of other elements. The interior contains denser materials such that the distribution is roughly 71% hydrogen, 24% helium and 5% other elements by mass. The atmosphere contains trace amounts of methane, water vapor, ammonia, and silicon-based compounds. There are also traces of carbon, ethane, hydrogen sulphide, neon, oxygen, phosphine, and sulphur.

The outermost layer of the atmosphere contains crystals of frozen ammonia. Through infrared and ultraviolet measurements, trace amounts of benzene and other hydrocarbons have also been found. Jupiter has been explored on several occasions by robotic spacecraft, most notably during the early Pioneer and Voyager fly-by missions and later by the Galileo orbiter. Future targets for exploration include the possible ice-covered liquid ocean on the Jovian moon Europa.

Strange blue band around Jupiter (courtesy NASA)
Dear me…Jupiter is turning blue. Now that is a spectacular change, add to this Jupiter’s new spot ” spot 2″ which is rapidly turning red like its predecessor “big spot 1”; volcano’s on Jupiters moon Io spewing material into Jupiter.

Jupiter’s “Big Red Spot” Credit: Nasa.

Jupiter’s “Little Red Spot.” Credit: New Horizons.

X-ray auroras observed by the Chandra X-ray Observatory overlaid on a simultaneous optical image from the Hubble Space Telescope.

March 29, 2007: So you thought Northern Lights were big in Alaska? “That’s nothing,” says Randy Gladstone of the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio, Texas. “Jupiter has auroras bigger than our entire planet.”

Last month, Gladstone and colleagues used NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory to capture this picture:The purple ring traces Jupiter’s X-ray auroras. Gladstone calls them “Northern Lights on steroids. They’re hundreds of times more energetic than auroras on Earth.”

Chandra has observed Jupiter’s auroras many times before, but this recent dataset is exceptional both in length and quality. Gladstone hopes it will help him solve some mysteries lingering for almost 30 years.

Jupiter’s auroras were discovered by the Voyager 1 spacecraft in 1979. A thin ring of light on Jupiter’s nightside looked like a stretched-out version of our own auroras on Earth. But those early photos merely hinted at the power involved. The real action, astronomers soon learned, was taking place at high-energy wavelengths invisible to the human eye. In the 1990s, ultraviolet cameras on the Hubble Space Telescope photographed raging lights thousands of times more intense than anything ever seen on Earth, while X-ray observatories saw auroral bands and curtains bigger than Earth itself.

Jupiter’s hyper-auroras never stop. “We see them every time we look,” says Gladstone. You don’t see auroras in Alaska every time you look, yet on Jupiter the Northern Lights always seem to be “on.”

Gladstone explains the difference: On Earth, the most intense auroras are caused by solar storms. An explosion on the sun hurls a billion-ton cloud of gas in our direction, and a few days later, it hits. Charged particles rain down on the upper atmosphere, causing the air to glow red, green and purple. On Jupiter, however, the sun is not required. “Jupiter is able to generate its own lights,” says Gladstone.

The process begins with Jupiter’s spin: The giant planet turns on it axis once every 10 hours and drags its planetary magnetic field around with it. As any science hobbyist knows, spinning a magnet is a great way to generate a few volts it’s the basic principle of DC motors. Jupiter’s spin produces 10 million volts around its poles.

“Jupiter’s polar regions are crackling with electricity,” says Gladstone, “and this sets the stage for non-stop auroras.” see caption The polar electric fields grab any charged particles they can find and slam them into the atmosphere. Particles for slamming can come from the sun, but Jupiter has another, more abundant source nearby: the volcanic moon Io, which spews oxygen and sulfur ions (O+ and S+) into Jupiter’s spinning magnetic field.

Somehow, these ions make their way to Jupiter’s poles where electric fields send them hurtling toward the planet below. Upon entering the atmosphere, “their electrons are first stripped away by molecules they run into, but as they slow down they start grabbing electrons back. The ‘charge exchange reaction’ produces intense X-ray auroras,” he explains.

So Jupiter’s Northern Lights are, in a sense, volcano powered. Mystery solved? Not quite.

No one knows exactly how volcanic exhaust meanders from Io out through Jupiter’s magnetosphere and back to Jupiter’s poles. “We’re still trying to figure it out,” says Gladstone.

But that is a minor detail compared to another, even bigger puzzle:

: X-ray flashes from Jupiter’s north pole.

“There is an X-ray “pulsar” inside Jupiter’s northern auroras. Sometimes Chandra sees it, sometimes not. When it’s on, the pulsar emits gigawatt bursts of X-rays with a regular beat of 45 minutes. Gladstone suspects the pulsar has nothing to do with Io’s volcanoes, but instead is caused by the sun. Maybe Jupiter’s magnetic field, when it gets hit by a solar wind gust, rings like a bell with a 45-minute period,There are many other possibilities as well.”


A volcanic eruption on Io photographed by New Horizons on Feb. 28, 2007. (courtesy NASA)

March 9, 2007: Andy Cheng has seen it all. The scientist from Johns Hopkins’ Applied Physics Lab has worked on the Galileo mission to Jupiter, the Cassini mission to Saturn, the NEAR mission to asteroid 433 Eros and many others during his decades-long career. Alien vistas are old hat to him.

But even he was amazed when he laid eyes on this photo of Io’s Tvashtar volcano, taken Feb. 28th by the New Horizons spacecraft: Omigod! I can’t believe it. “That was my first reaction,” says Cheng. “The LORRI image of the Tvashtar plume is the best and most detailed plume image that any of us — including longtime Jupiter experts — have ever seen.”

LORRI is an 8-inch telescope onboard New Horizons, NASA’s Pluto-bound spacecraft. “The telescope was designed to take high-resolution pictures of Pluto and its moons when New Horizons reaches the outer solar system in 2015,” explains Cheng, the principal investigator for LORRI, which is short for Long Range Reconnaissance Imager.

Last week New Horizons flew past Jupiter for a quick velocity boost, and “this gave us an opportunity to take some pictures,” he says. Cheng and colleagues trained the telescope on Jupiter’s moons Io, Europa, Callisto and Ganymede and on Jupiter itself. Many of the pictures are stunning: gallery.

“Future LORRI images of Pluto and Charon will have even more detail and higher resolution, because New Horizons will bring us at least a thousand times closer than we came to Io,” notes Cheng. Of course, no one has any idea what LORRI will see, because Pluto has never been visited by a space probe. “That’s why we’re going.”

Catching a volcano blowing its top on Io isn’t really a big surprise, notes Cheng. “Io is in a constant state of eruption.”

To understand why, he suggests, dig a paperclip out of your desk drawer. Flex the clip rapidly back and forth many times, and touch the flexure. Careful! It’s hot. The combination of flexing + internal friction heats the clip to surprisingly high temperatures.

The same thing happens to Io. Gravitational forces exerted on Io by Jupiter and the other large moons raise tidal bulges in Io’s solid crust 30 meters high. This flexing action, like the flexing of a paperclip, makes Io’s interior molten hot and, as a result, the moon has hundreds of active volcanoes.

“We were actually hoping to catch a different volcano Prometheus,” says Cheng. Prometheus is an old and reliable volcano on Io which has been photographed many times before by Voyager and Galileo. It appears in the New Horizons photo, too; “It’s the little mushroom-shaped plume at 9 o’clock,” he points out.

Tvashtar’s plume dwarfed grand old Prometheus, rising 180 miles (290 km) above Io’s surface. (For comparison, volcanoes on Earth spew their gas and dust just a few miles high.) “The patchy and filamentous structure seen in the Tvashtar plume suggests to me that condensation from gas to solid particulates is occurring,” he says. In other words, the gas could be crystallizing in the cold space above Io to form a kind of sulfurous snow.

Volcanoes spewing snow?

Credit: Science@NASA

This schematic shows the space environment near Jupiter. The red band consists of magnetically trapped radiation ions, and the green and blue bands are the neutral gas toruses of Io and Europa, respectively.
Jupiter has a very large and powerful magnetosphere. In fact, if one could see Jupiter’s magnetic field from Earth, it would appear five times as large as the full moon in the sky despite being so much farther away. The magnetic field is generated by eddy currents in Jupiter’s metallic hydrogen core.

This magnetic field collects a large flux of particle radiation in Jupiter’s radiation belts, as well as producing a dramatic gas torus and flux tube associated with Io(one of Jupiter’s moons). Jupiter’s magnetosphere is the largest planetary structure in the solar system.

” The doubling of the magnetic field intensity on Jupiter (based upon 1992 data), and a series of new states and processes observed on this planet as an aftermath of a series of explosions in July 1994 [caused by “Comet” SL-9] . That is, a relaxation of a plasmoid train which excited the Jovian magnetosphere, thus inducing excessive plasma generation [12] and it’s release in the same manner as Solar coronal holes inducing an appearance of radiation belt brightening in decimeter band (13.2 and 36 cm), and the appearance of large auroral anomalies and a change of the Jupiter – Io system of currents .

Update Note From A.N.D Nov. 1997:
A stream of ionized hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, etc. is being directed to Jupiter from the volcanic areas of Io through a one million amperes flux tube. It is affecting the character of Jupiter’s magnetic process and intensifying it’s plasma genesis.{Z.I.Vselennaya “Earth and Universe” N3, 1997 plo-9 by NASA data}”

Published in Russian, IICA Transactions, Volume 4, 1997 *Professor of Geology and Mineralogy, and Chief Scientific Member,
United Institute of Geology, Geophysics, and Mineralogy, Siberian Department of Russian Academy of Sciences.

Click here to Read this Paper

Saturn (planet)

Saturn, as seen by the Cassini space probe

Saturn: Scale
Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun. It is a gas giant (also known as a Jovian planet, after the planet Jupiter), the second-largest planet in the Solar System after Jupiter. Saturn has a prominent system of rings, consisting mostly of ice particles with a smaller amount of rocky debris and dust.

Saturn is an oblate spheroid; that is, it is flattened at the poles and bulges at the equator. Its equatorial and polar diameters differ by almost 10% (120,536 km vs. 108,728 km). This is the result of its rapid rotation and fluid state. The other gas planets are also oblate, but to a lesser extent. Saturn is the only planet of the Solar System that is less dense than water. Although Saturn’s core is considerably more dense than water, the average specific density of the planet is 0.69 g/cm3 due to the gaseous atmosphere.

Saturn’s interior is similar to Jupiter’s, having a rocky core at the center, a liquid metallic hydrogen layer above that, and a molecular hydrogen layer above that. Traces of various ices are also present. Saturn has a very hot interior, reaching 12,000 kelvins (11,700 degreesC) at the core, and it radiates more energy into space than it receives from the Sun. Most of the extra energy is generated by the Kelvin-Helmholtz mechanism (slow gravitational compression), but this alone may not be sufficient to explain Saturn’s heat production.

An additional proposed mechanism by which Saturn may generate some of its heat is the “raining out” of droplets of helium deep in Saturn’s interior, the droplets of helium releasing heat by friction as they fall down through the lighter hydrogen.

Saturn’s atmosphere exhibits a banded pattern similar to Jupiter’s (in fact, the nomenclature is the same), but Saturn’s bands are much fainter and are also much wider near the equator. Saturn’s winds are among the Solar System’s fastest. Voyager data indicate peak easterly winds of 500 m/s (1116 mph). Saturn’s finer cloud patterns were not observed until the Voyager flybys. Since then, however, Earth-based telescopy has improved to the point where regular observations can be made.

A bizarre six-sided feature encircling the north pole of Saturn near 78 degrees north latitude
has been spied by the visual and infrared mapping spectrometer on NASA’s Cassini spacecraft.
Credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona
Astronomers using infrared imaging have shown that Saturn has a warm polar vortex, and is the only such planet known in the solar system. A persisting hexagonal wave pattern around the north polar vortex in the atmosphere at about 78 degrees N was first noted in the Voyager images. Unlike the north pole, HST imaging of the south polar region indicates the presence of a jet stream, but no strong polar vortex nor any hexagonal standing wave. However, NASA reported in November 2006 that the Cassini spacecraft observed a ‘hurricane-like’ storm locked to the south pole that had a clearly defined eyewall. This observation is particularly notable because eyewall clouds have not been seen on any planet other than Earth (including a failure to observe an eyewall in the Great Red Spot of Jupiter by the Galileo spacecraft).

The straight sides of the northern polar hexagon are each about 13,800 kilometers long. The entire structure rotates with a period of 10h 39m 24s, the same period as that of the planet’s radio emissions, which is assumed to be equal to the period of rotation of Saturn’s interior. The hexagonal feature does not shift in longitude like the other clouds in the visible atmosphere.

The pattern’s origin is a matter of much speculation. Most astronomers seem to favor some sort of standing-wave pattern in the atmosphere; but the hexagon might be a novel sort of aurora. More extreme speculation has Saturn’s radio emissions emanating from the hexagon (something we can see and which has the right rotation period) rather than from the planet’s interior (something we cannot see). Polygon shapes have been replicated in spinning buckets of fluid on laboratory scales.

At present, most of our knowledge of the Saturnian system can be traced to the pioneering observations of Saturn’s plasma population, energetic particle population, magnetic fields, plasma waves and remote sensing observations from the Pioneer II and Voyager 1 and 2 encounters Johnson et al. (1989) constructed from all these observations a model of a neutral cloud torus that surrounds Saturn.

This work was followed by the discovery using HST of a relatively large toroidal cloud of OH that was surrounding Saturn with densities as high as 500 cm-3 near the L shell of [the moon] Enceladus (Shemansky et al., 1993; Hall et al. 1996; and Richardson et al. 1998). This density was more than an order of magnitude larger [1000% larger] than that predicted by Johnson et al. (1989) [based on the original Pioneer and Voyager data]

Ed Sittler. et al. Pickup Ions at Dione and Enceladus: Cassini Plasma Spectrometer Simulations.
NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center et al.

Saturn aurorae imaged at both poles by HST in 1998 (NASA)

Chandra X-Ray image of Saturn (left), compared with Hubble visual image (right). Note concentration of x-ray emission from Saturn’s equatorial atmosphere, below the sunlit plane of the rings (NASA)

Implicit consequences are those processes which are below the threshold of usual human perception, and are therefore not brought to our common attention. Instrument recordings, and even direct observations, of these phenomena throughout Earth’s electromagnetic field provides evidence that an immense transformation of Earth’s environment is taking place.

Published in Russian, IICA Transactions, Volume 4, 1997 *Professor of Geology and Mineralogy, and Chief Scientific Member,
United Institute of Geology, Geophysics, and Mineralogy, Siberian Department of Russian Academy of Sciences.

Click here to Read this Paper

Uranus (planet)

Uranus, as seen by Voyager 2

Uranus: Scale
Uranus named after the Greek god of the sky (Uranus), it is the seventh planet from the Sun. It is a gas giant, the third largest by diameter and fourth largest by mass.

Uranus is composed primarily of gas and various ices. The atmosphere is about 83 percent hydrogen, 15 percent helium, 2 percent methane and traces of acetylene. The interior is richer in heavier elements, most likely compounds of oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen, as well as rocky materials. This is in contrast to Jupiter and Saturn which are mostly hydrogen and helium. Uranus (like Neptune) is very much similar to the cores of Jupiter and Saturn without the massive fluid metallic hydrogen envelope. Uranus’ cyan color is due to the absorption of red light by atmospheric methane. Surface temperature on Uranus’ cloud cover is approximately 55 K (-218 degrees C or -360 degrees F).

Axial tilt

One of the most distinctive features of Uranus is its axial tilt of ninety-eight degrees. Consequently, for part of its orbit one pole faces the Sun continually while the other pole faces away. At the other side of Uranus’s orbit the orientation of the poles towards the Sun is reversed. This gives each pole 42 years of continuous sunlight, followed by 42 years of darkness. Between these two extremes of its orbit, particularly at the equinoxes, the Sun rises and sets around the equator normally. Uranus will reach its next equinox around December 2007, and not again until 2049.

False-Color Infrared Image of Emerging High-Altitude Bright Clouds on Uranus (NASA/HST 1998)

Hubble recently found about 20 clouds nearly as many clouds on Uranus as the previous total in the history of modern observations. The orange-colored clouds near the prominent bright band circle the planet at more than 300 mph (500 km/h). One of the clouds on the right-hand side is brighter than any other cloud ever seen on Uranus.

Erich Karkoschka. et al. Hubble Finds Many Bright Clouds on Uranus. HubbleSite NewsCenter, Oct. 14, 1998, no. 35.

A team from Paris Observatory, led by Therese Encrenaz (LESIA), has just detected for the first time the molecule of carbon monoxide (CO) in the atmosphere of Uranus.

The origin of this molecule is probably external to the planet, for example due to micrometeorites.

In spite of their common status of ‘icy giants’ in the outer solar system, the two giant planets Uranus and Neptune, with comparable sizes and densities, show significant differences. In particular, the CO and HCN molecules have been detected in large amounts in Neptune’s stratosphere, from millimeter spectroscopy, while this technique was unsuccessful in the case of Uranus.

New measurements made in the infrared range have now allowed the detection of CO in the atmosphere of Uranus. This measurement has been made possible by the very high sensitivity of the infrared spectrometer ISAAC This result, if confirmed, seems to imply an external origin for [the] CO, which would come, like the water vapor detected in the giant planet’s stratospheres, from an interplanetary flux of micrometeorites trapped in the planet’s gravity field.

T Encrenaz. et al. First detection of CO in Uranus. Observatoire de Paris Press Release,, Wed. Dec. 17, 2003.

The situation that has been created here in our Heliosphere is of external, Interstellar, cosmic space origin,and is herein assumed to be caused by the underlying fundamental auto-oscillation, space-physical, processes of continuous creation that has shaped, and continues to evolve our Universe.

The present excited state of our Heliosphere exists within the whole, or entire, organism that makes up the Solar System; the Sun, Planets, Moons, Comets, and Asteroids, as well as the plasmas, and/or electromagnetic mediums, and structures, of Interplanetary Space.

The response to these Interstellar energy and matter injections into our Heliosphere has been, and continues to be, a series of newly observed energetic processes and formations on all of the Planets; between the Planets and their Moons, and the Planets and the Sun.

Published in Russian, IICA Transactions, Volume 4, 1997 *Professor of Geology and Mineralogy, and Chief Scientific Member,
United Institute of Geology, Geophysics, and Mineralogy, Siberian Department of Russian Academy of Sciences.

Click here to Read this Paper

Neptune (planet):


Neptune: Scale
Neptune is the eighth and farthest planet from the Sun in our solar system. It is the fourth largest planet by diameter and the third largest by mass; Neptune is 17 times the mass of Earth and is slightly more massive than its near twin Uranus, which is 14 Earth masses, but slightly smaller due to its higher density. The planet is named after the Roman god of the sea.

Neptune’s atmosphere is primarily composed of hydrogen and helium, with traces of methane that account for the planet’s blue appearance. Neptune’s blue color is much more vivid than that of Uranus, which has a similar amount of methane, so an unknown component is presumed to cause Neptune’s intense color. Neptune also has the strongest winds of any planet in the solar system, measured as high as 2,100 km/h or 1,300 mph. At the time of the 1989 Voyager 2 flyby, it had in its southern hemisphere a Great Dark Spot comparable to the Great Red Spot on Jupiter. Neptune’s temperature at its cloud tops is usually close to -210 degrees C (-346 degrees F), one of the coldest in the solar system, due to its long distance from the sun. However, Neptune’s center is about 7,000 degrees C (13,000 degrees F), hotter than the sun’s surface. This is due to extremely hot gases and rock in the center.

Faint azure colored rings have been detected around the blue planet, but are much less substantial than those of Saturn. When these rings were discovered by a team led by Edward Guinan, it was thought that they might not be complete. However, this was disproved by Voyager 2. Neptune possesses thirteen confirmed moons. Neptune’s largest moon, Triton, is notable for its retrograde orbit, extreme cold (38 K), and extremely tenuous (1.4 Pa) nitrogen/methane atmosphere.

Atmospheric brightness increases on Neptune, 1996-2002. (Sromovsky et al. / NASA / HST)
I think the above image is conclusive, change is happening on/to Neptune. As well what are heat sources of Neptune and Uranus? If they has some mysterious gizmo for generating heat Why can’t Venus have one? That would solve plenty of enigmatic problems viz a viz Venus;

Our Planet Earth is now in the process of a dramatic transformation;by altering the electromagnetic skeleton through a shift of the geomagnetic field poles, and through compositional changes in the ozone, and hydrogen, saturation levels of its gas-plasma envelopes.

These changes in the Earth’s physical state are being accompanied by resultant climatic/atmospheric, and biospheric, adaptation processes. These processes are becoming more and more intense, and frequent, as evidenced by the real time increase in “non-periodic transient events”; ie., catastrophes.

Published in Russian, IICA Transactions, Volume 4, 1997 *Professor of Geology and Mineralogy, and Chief Scientific Member,
United Institute of Geology, Geophysics, and Mineralogy, Siberian Department of Russian Academy of Sciences.

Click here to Read this Paper

Pluto (ex-planet )

Reconstructed map of Pluto, approximately true color, and at highest resolution possible with current methods
Pluto, also designated 134340 Pluto, is the second-largest known dwarf planet in the Solar System and the tenth-largest body observed directly orbiting the Sun. Originally considered a planet, Pluto has since been recognised as the largest member of a distinct region called the Kuiper belt. Like other members of the belt, it is primarily composed of rock and ice. It is approximately one-fifth the mass of the Earth’s Moon, and is smaller than seven of the Solar System’s natural satellites. Pluto has an eccentric orbit that takes it from 29 to 49 AU (4.3 to 7.3 billion km) from the Sun, and is highly inclined with respect to the planets. As a result, Pluto occasionally comes closer to the Sun than the planet Neptune.

Pluto and its largest satellite, Charon, are often considered a binary system because they are closer in size than any of the other known celestial pairs in the Solar System, and because the barycentre of their orbits does not lie within either body. However, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) has yet to formalise a definition for binary dwarf planets, and until it passes such a ruling, Charon remains a moon of Pluto. Pluto has two smaller moons, Nix and Hydra, discovered in 2005.

From the time of its discovery in 1930 until 2006, Pluto was considered the Solar System’s ninth planet. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries however, many objects similar to Pluto were discovered in the outer solar system, most notably the trans-Neptunian object Eris, which is slightly larger than Pluto. On August 24, 2006 the IAU defined the term “planet” for the first time. This definition excluded Pluto from planethood, and reclassified it under the new category of dwarf planet along with Eris and Ceres. After the reclassification, Pluto was added to the list of minor planets and given the number 134340.

Pluto’s global warming is likely not connected with that of the Earth.

The major way they could be connected is if the warming was caused by a large increase in sunlight. But the solar constant the amount of sunlight received each second is carefully monitored by spacecraft, and we know the sun’s output is much too steady to be changing the temperature of Pluto.”

Jay Pasachoff, an astronomy professor at Williams College.

“The new results seem counterintuitive, because observers assumed Pluto’s atmosphere would begin to collapse as it cooled. In fact, the temperature of Pluto’s mostly nitrogen atmosphere has increased around 1 degree Celsius since it was closest to the sun in 1989.”


“The changes observed in Pluto’s atmosphere are much more severe [than on Triton]. The change observed on Triton was subtle. Pluto’s changes are not subtle. This is a very complex process, and we just don’t know what is causing these effects on Pluto’s surface, Elliot said. That’s why you need to send a mission.”

Dr. James L. Elliot.

All of this places humanity, and each one of us, squarely in front of a very difficult and topical problem; the creation of a revolutionary advancement in knowledge which will require a transformation of our thinking and being equal to this never-before-seen phenomena now presencing itself in our world.

There is no other path to the future than a profound internal experiential perception and knowledge of the events now underway in the natural environment that surrounds us. It is only through this understanding that humanity will achieve balance with the renewing flow of the Planet/Physical States and Processes.

* Published in Russian, IICA Transactions, Volume 4, 1997 *Professor of Geology and Mineralogy, and Chief Scientific Member,
United Institute of Geology, Geophysics, and Mineralogy, Siberian Department of Russian Academy of Sciences.

Click here to Read this Paper

I have presented only a fraction of the changes occurring in our solar system, with the exception of Io, a moon of Jupiter, I have not touched upon the changes occurring on the moons of the solar system nor listed the totality of changes for the planets.

My own personal opinion…After studying this matter…Albeit a superficial investigation, I am in complete agreement with Dr. Alexey N. Dmitriev as I suspect is Dr Habibullo Abdussamatov. Our planet is changing on a far deeper and profound level than can be attributed to the emission of CO2 because our solar system is changing.

As I stated I am not a authority in any of the fields I have investigated, this however is of no consequence at all because the only person I needed to convince was myself…From a skeptical point of view I have amassed, studied, sufficient data and evidence that has transformed my skepticism into an inner conviction that cosmic heliosphere scenario is correct. So the consequential effects to our planet and civilization I will necessarily calculate from this scenario the “Heliochange”.

This is an awesome and dramatic transformation to contemplate and one that no living creature on scale of life on the planet Earth can escape or hold aloof from.

Life on Earth is now in the hands of destiny, evolution, and God for verily we are helpless in the face of these cosmic forces, the best we can do is to protect ourselves by being fore warned and thus to the best of our ability fore armed. Boom!

So far by dead reckoning we “Know for fact/truth” thats near enough;

  • 1…On a global scale…The temperature has risen/ is rising…
  • 2…On a global scale…Climate patterns are changing…
  • 3…We cannot be 100% certain of the validity of information, received, regarding 1&2 in this list…
  • 4…CO2 as the prime cause of global warming has not yet been validated its still a theory.
  • 5…The Sun has changed its behaviour become more active.
  • 6…The Heliosphere of the Sun and the planets it contains has changed status become more active.

360-degree photographic panorama of the entire galaxy, from the viewpoint of our solar system.
Credit: Science@NASA

In the next edition of Earthwatch.
Cosmic Rays, Cosmic Debris, the “Heliochange”,
and the influence of the Galactic Centre

Scary Monsters: The eye of Ra…

All the best….

Part 5 of this article: See next months…RHS1 Earthwatch Page





North Aral sea comparison 2007 (top) 2005 ‘bottom)

In 2000, the Aral Sea was in grave condition. This inland sea, which was once Earth’s fourth-largest lake, had been steadily shrinking since the 1960s, when Soviet-era irrigation projects diverted the main rivers sustaining the sea. The lake shrunk to a quarter of its original size in a few decades, creating an environmental and public health disaster. As the lake dried up, winters became colder and harsher, and summers became hotter and more arid. Blowing dust, laden with pesticides and other chemicals, is routinely scoured from the dry lake bed and poses a severe public health hazard.

In 2007, however, the North Aral Sea was enjoying a renaissance, due the construction of a dam in 2005 that prevents water from flowing into the South Aral Sea. This pair of images acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Terra satellite shows the recovery of the Aral Sea between April 15, 2005 (bottom), and April 14, 2007 (top). The recovery is most dramatic in the upper right part of the image, although a close look at the lake’s borders show a general rise in water level throughout the lake. Much of this recovery actually occurred in the first year after the dam was completed.

The North Aral Sea owes its rebirth to the Kok-Aral Dam, an $85.8 million project bolstered by a loan from the World Bank. The dam separates the North Aral Sea from its saltier and more polluted southern half. In early 2006, the Embassy of the Republic of Kazakhstan announced that the Aral Sea had shown dramatic recovery in just months, rather than the five to ten years originally predicted.

Local economies, long dependent on the water, were making a comeback as well. One example was Aralsk, the one-time port city that had gradually been surrounded by desert. By the spring of 2006, Aralsk was once again close to the water. On April 9, 2007, BBC News reported that the government of Kazakhstan had secured a new loan of $126 million from the World Bank to build a second dam, aimed at returning water to Heralsk, a former port that was deserted as the lake shrank.

Text and image. (courtesy NASA)




If you have been following our Earth Watch thread in the forums, you are familiar with our Earthquake Watch. Our tracking was started as a result of a prediction that we are in for some pretty massive destructive forces as a result of Chandler’s Wobble stopping in December of 2005 and January of 2006. This had never happened before in known history. One of the results of this action, or lack thereof, was the shift of the magnetic poles.

This has been confirmed. The Northern magnetic pole is shifting rapidly toward Russia. The cease of the Wobble was also thought to have initiated some movement of the tectonic plates as well. That would mean Earthquakes – and Tsunamis. So we started watching.

Our watch began in March of 2006, so our watch years are not in accordance with actual calendar years – but the time span is the same nevertheless.

We were told to expect an increasing number of larger quakes.

In our tracking we have only included quakes of magnitude 5 and over. There are two reasons for this. The first is that it is at this strength that quakes start to cause damage. We may feel a 4 or even a 3 magnitude quake, but at magnitude 5 you have reached a danger point.

The second reason is that at magnitude 4 and under you have tens of thousands of quakes per year, and face it, I have a day job and just plain would not have the time to do that extensive of reporting. If you are interested in magnitude 4 quakes, I did in our EarthWatch thread give the number of mag 4’s in each of the reports there, but no details were recorded on those quakes.

Our average amount of quakes numbers are from USGS data. We have used their averages for yearly events which have been compiled from recordings from 1990 to present. Before then the global tracking we now have was not available, so whether Earthquakes have become more prevailent since 1990 or not can only be guessed.

While global warming will have disasterous effects in other storm areas, such as Hurricanes, earthquakes are a result of plate or crustal movement. These movements have been a part of the scenerio of our planet since time began. It is the constructions of these plates which have allowed life to exist at all on the planet – but it can also cause calamatous disaster to life as anyone who remembers the tsunami of 2004 is well aware.

So what has our first year of tracking revealed? The figures for March 1, 2006 to March 1, 2007 are:

Magnitude 8 and greater – the average is 1, if any, per year. We experienced 2. There was a magnitude 8 in the first quarter of our new year already, which brings a total of 3 in less than a 6 month period. This figure is a bit unsettling, to say the least.

Magnitude 7 – the average is 17 per year. We had only 8 during our watch. This is less than half of the average. There was one more just a few days before our tracking started but even if we slip that into our figures we are still way under average.

Magnitude 6 – the average is 134 per year. We had 139 during our watch year. So for these quakes we are up by around 4%. This is an increase, but not nearly as alarming as an increase in mag 8 quakes.

Magnitude 5 – the average is 1319 per year. There were 1230 during our watch year, so we are actually down almost 7% on this level of shake.

What does this all add up to? We are up in the amount of two of the strongest quakes levels, but actually light in two other levels. So far we have not seen much of a change however the numbers seemed to start getting larger at the end of our first year watch. So far they have been pretty strong for our first quarter of our second year, too. Perhaps the changes we were told to expect are not going to happen as quickly as we might have presumed from predictions arising from the cease of Chandler’s Wobble, but if the trend toward more magnitude 8 quakes keeps in stride with the recent amount, we may be seeing more prominent changes as time goes on. With the rise in magnitude 8 and 6 quakes, and the prediction of an emminant magnitude 8 or 9 in the Cascadia Subduction Zone, (see our April newsletter for more information on this) we will be continuing our watch thorughout another year.

We will also be following other Earth and Weather events, so keep posted. If you have any information you would like to add, we have set up an Earth Watch forum for dicussion.

Sally Taylor…RHS1 Earthwatch.

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